Risk factors for positive depression screens in hospitalized cardiac patients.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
Journal of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 2.57). 03/2012; 60(1):72-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2012.01.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Depression is common in patients with cardiac illness and is independently associated with elevated morbidity and mortality. There are screening guidelines for depression in cardiac patients, but the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of screening all cardiac patients is controversial. This process may be improved if a subset of cardiac patients at high risk for depression could be identified using information readily available to clinicians and screened.
To identify risk factors for a positive depression screen at the time of admission in hospitalized cardiac patients.
A total of 561 consecutively screened cardiac inpatients underwent the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2). A prospective chart review was performed to assess potential risk factors for depression that would be readily available to front-line clinicians. Rates of risk factors were compared between patients with positive and negative PHQ-2 depression screens, and multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess whether specific risk factors were independently associated with positive screens.
Of the 561 patients screened, 13.5% (n=76) had a positive depression screen (PHQ-2≥2). In the univariate analyses, several variables were associated with a positive depression screen. On multivariate analysis, an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count (>10×10(9) cells per liter) and prescription of an antidepressant on admission were independently associated with a positive depression screen, while current smoking showed a trend toward significance.
Information on these three identified risk factors (WBC count, antidepressant use, and smoking) is readily available to clinicians, and patients with these diagnoses may represent a cohort who would benefit from targeted depression screening in certain settings.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: International depression screening guidelines in heart failure (HF) are partly based on depression treatment efficacy from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Our aim was to test the external validity of depression RCT criteria in a sample of real-world HF patients. HF patients admitted to 3 hospitals in South Australia were referred to a HF psychologist if not already receiving current psychiatric management by psychologist or psychiatrist elsewhere. Screening and referral protocol consisted of the following; (a). Patient Health Questionnaire ≥10; (b). Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire ≥7); (c). positive response to 1 item panic attack screener; (d). evidence of suicidality. Patients were evaluated against the most common RCT exclusion criteria personality disorder, high suicide risk, cognitive impairment, psychosis, alcohol or substance abuse or dependency, bi-polar depression. Total 81 HF patients were referred from 404 HF admissions, and 73 were assessed (age 60.6±13.4, 47.9% female). Nearly half (47%) met at least 1 RCT exclusion criterion, most commonly personality disorder (28.5%), alcohol/substance abuse (17.8%) and high suicide risk (11.0%). RCT ineligibility criteria was more frequent among patients with major depression (76.5% vs. 46.2%, p<.01) and dysthymia (26.5% vs. 7.7%, p = .03) but not significantly associated with anxiety disorders. RCT ineligible patients reported greater severity of depression (M = 16.6±5.0 vs. M = 12.9±7.2, p = .02) and were higher consumers of HF psychotherapy services (M = 11.5±4.7 vs. M = 8.5±4.8, p = .01). In this real-world sample comparable in size to recent RCT intervention arms, patients with depression disorders presented with complex psychiatric needs including comorbid personality disorders, alcohol/substance use and suicide risk. These findings suggest external validity of depression screening and RCTs could serve as a basis for level A guideline recommendations in cardiovascular diseases.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85928. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several international guidelines recommend routine depression screening in cardiac disease populations. No previous study has determined the prevalence and comorbidities of personality disorders in patients presenting for psychiatric treatment after these screening initiatives. In the first stage 404 heart failure (HF) patients were routinely screened and 73 underwent structured interview when either of the following criteria were met: (a) Patient Health Questionnaire ≥10; (b) Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire ≥7); (c) Response to one item panic-screener. Or (d) Suicidality. Patients with personality disorders were compared to the positive-screen patients on psychiatric comorbidities. The most common personality disorders were avoidant (8.2%), borderline (6.8%) and obsessive compulsive (4.1%), other personality disorders were prevalent in less than <3% of patients. Personality disorder patients had significantly greater risk of major depression (risk ratio (RR) 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-13.3), generalized anxiety disorder (RR 3.2; 95% CI 1.0-10.0), social phobia (RR 3.8; 95% CI 1.3-11.5) and alcohol abuse/dependence (RR 3.2; 95% 1.0-9.5). The findings that HF patients with personality disorders presented with complex psychiatric comorbidity suggest that pathways facilitating the integration of psychiatric services into cardiology settings are warranted when routine depression screening is in place.
    Psychiatry Research 09/2014; 220(3):954–959. · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anxiety is often present in patients with depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of clustered depression and anxiety on mortality and rehospitalization in hospitalized patients with heart failure (HF). A total of 221 hospitalized patients with HF, who completed the questionnaires, were analyzed in this prospective study (mean age 62±13 years; 28% female). One-third patients had implanted cardiac devices. Depression was defined as a Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale index score of ≥60 and anxiety was defined as a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score of ≥40 (male) or ≥42 (female). The primary outcome was the composite of death from any cause or rehospitalization due to worsened HF and refractory arrhythmia. Of the 221 HF patients, 29 (13%) had depression alone, 80 (36%) had anxiety alone, and 46 patients (21%) had both depression and anxiety. During an average follow-up of 41±21 months, patients with depression alone and those with clustered depression and anxiety were at an increased risk of the primary outcome [hazard ratio (HR) 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-4.28, p=0.01 and HR 2.75, 95% CI: 1.51-4.99, p=0.01, respectively] compared to patients with no symptoms. Multivariate analysis after adjusting for age, gender, New York Heart Association functional class, B-type natriuretic peptide, device implantation, renal dysfunction, and left ventricular dysfunction showed clustered depression and anxiety, but not depression alone or anxiety alone, was an independent predictor of the primary outcome (HR 1.96, 95% CI: 1.00-3.27, p=0.04). Our results showed that clustered depression and anxiety were associated with worse outcomes in patients with HF.
    Journal of Cardiology 04/2014; · 2.57 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 4, 2014