Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound accelerates fracture healing by stimulation of recruitment of both local and circulating osteogenic progenitors.
ABSTRACT We investigated the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on the homing of circulating osteogenic progenitors to the fracture site. Parabiotic animals were formed by surgically conjoining a green fluorescent protein (GFP) mouse and a syngeneic wild-type mouse. A transverse femoral fracture was made in the contralateral hind limb of the wild-type partner. The fracture site was exposed to daily LIPUS in the treatment group. Animals without LIPUS treatment served as the control group. Radiological assessment showed that the hard callus area was significantly greater in the LIPUS group than in the control group at 2 and 4 weeks post-fracture. Histomorphometric analysis at the fracture site showed a significant increase of GFP cells in the LIPUS group after 2 weeks (7.5%), compared to the control group (2.4%) (p < 0.05). The LIPUS group exhibited a significantly higher percentage of GFP cells expressing alkaline phosphatase (GFP/AP) than the control group at 2 weeks post-fracture (5.9%, 0.3%, respectively, p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the percentage of GFP/AP cells between the LIPUS group (2.0%) and the control group (1.4%) at 4 weeks post-fracture. Stromal cell derived factor-1 and CXCR4 were immunohistochemically identified at the fracture site in the LIPUS group. These data indicate that LIPUS induced the homing of circulating osteogenic progenitors to the fracture site for possible contribution to new bone formation.
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ABSTRACT: Tissue engineering seeks to translate scientific knowledge into tangible products to advance the repair, replacement, or regeneration of organs and tissues. Current tissue engineering strategies have progressed recently from a historical approach that is based primarily on biomaterials to a cell and tissue-based approach that includes understanding of cell-sourcing and bioactive stimuli. New options include methods for harvest and transplantation of tissue-forming cells, bioactive matrix materials that act as tissue scaffolds, and delivery of bioactive molecules within scaffolds. These strategies are already benefiting patients, and they place increasing demands on orthopaedic surgeons to have a solid foundation in the contemporary concepts and principles of cell-based tissue engineering. Essentially all orthopaedic tissue engineering strategies can be distilled to a strategy or combination of strategies that seek to increase the number or relative performance of bone-forming cells. The global term connective tissue progenitors has been used to define the heterogeneous populations of stem and progenitor cells that are found in native tissue and that are capable of differentiating into one or more connective tissue phenotypes. These stem or progenitor populations are found in various tissue sources, with varying degrees of ability to differentiate along connective tissue lineages. Available cell-based strategies include targeting local cells with use of scaffolds or bioactive factors, or transplantation of autogenous connective tissue progenitor cells derived from bone marrow or other tissues, with or without processing to change their concentration or prevalence. The future may include means of homing circulating connective tissue progenitor cells with use of intrinsic chemokine systems, or modifying the biological performance of connective tissue progenitor cells by means of genetic modifications.The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 03/2008; 90 Suppl 1:111-9. · 3.23 Impact Factor
Article: Chemokines and leukocyte traffic.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Over the past ten years, numerous chemokines have been identified as attractants of different types of blood leukocytes to sites of infection and inflammation. They are produced locally in the tissues and act on leukocytes through selective receptors. Chemokines are now known to also function as regulatory molecules in leukocyte maturation, traffic and homing of lymphocytes, and the development of lymphoid tissues.Nature 05/1998; 392(6676):565-8. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We hypothesise that following a bone fracture there is systemic recruitment of bone forming cells to a fracture site. A rabbit ulnar osteotomy model was adapted to trace the movement of osteogenic cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from 41 NZW rabbits were isolated, culture-expanded and fluorescently labelled. The labelled cells were either re-implanted into the fracture gap (Group A); into a vein (Group B); or into a remote tibial bone marrow cavity 48 h after the osteotomy (Group C) or 4 weeks before the osteotomy was established (Group D), and a control group (Group E) had no labelled cells given. To quantify passive leakage of cells to an injury site, inert beads were also co-delivered in Group B. Samples of the fracture callus tissue and various organs were harvested at discrete sacrifice time-points to trace and quantify the labelled cells. At 3 weeks following osteotomy, the number of labelled cells identified in the callus of Group C, was significantly greater than following IV delivery, Group B, and there was no difference in the number of labelled cells in the callus tissues, between Groups C and A, indicating the labelled bone marrow cells were capable of migrating to the fracture sites from the remote bone marrow cavity. Significantly fewer inert beads than labelled cells were identified in Group B callus, suggesting some of the bone-forming cells were actively recruited and selectively chosen to the fracture site, rather than passively leaked into the circulation and to bone injury site. This investigation supports the hypothesis that some osteoblasts involved in fracture healing were systemically mobilised and recruited to the fracture from remote bone marrow sites.Journal of Orthopaedic Research 10/2005; 23(5):1013-21. · 2.88 Impact Factor