Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome associated with steroid sulfatase deficiency-x-linked recessive ichthyosis: a case report and review of literature.
ABSTRACT Nephrotic syndrome associated with X-linked recessive ichthyosis due to steroid sulfatase deficiency has rarely been reported in English literature. We describe a 4 and a half-year-old boy presenting with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) with an underlying ichthyotic skin present since birth. Renal biopsy revealed minimal change disease. As many of the male members of the family also showed similar skin manifestations, genetic analysis was done on the patient, which revealed deletion of the steroid sulfatase (STS) gene spanning both the 3' as well as the 5'ends. The patient was thus diagnosed with SRNS associated with X-linked recessive ichthyosis. He was started on cyclosporine regimen, and remission was achieved in 5 weeks. We speculate that the deficiency of STS resulting in increased cholesterol sulfate accumulation interferes with the integrity of adherens junctions present between glomerular epithelial cells of the slit diaphragm, and this results in proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome. The nephrotic syndrome remitted with a calcineurin inhibitor medication. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the deficiency of STS is another one in an increasing list of genetic causes of podocytopathy and nephrotic syndrome. Remission of proteinuria in such a case may be achieved with immunosuppressive medication.
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ABSTRACT: X-linked ichthyosis is a relatively common syndromic form of ichthyosis most often due to deletions in the gene encoding the microsomal enzyme, steroid sulfatase, located on the short area of the X chromosome. Syndromic features are mild or unapparent unless contiguous genes are affected. In normal epidermis, cholesterol sulfate is generated by cholesterol sulfotransferase (SULT2B1b), but desulfated in the outer epidermis, together forming a 'cholesterol sulfate cycle' that potently regulates epidermal differentiation, barrier function and desquamation. In XLI, cholesterol sulfate levels my exceed 10% of total lipid mass (≈1% of total weight). Multiple cellular and biochemical processes contribute to the pathogenesis of the barrier abnormality and scaling phenotype in XLI. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor