Nutrient-enriched formula versus standard term formula for preterm infants following hospital discharge (Review)

Hull York Medical School & Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, UK.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 6.03). 03/2012; 3(3):CD004696. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004696.pub4
Source: PubMed


Preterm infants are often growth-restricted at hospital discharge. Feeding infants after hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula rather than standard term formula might facilitate "catch-up" growth and improve development.
To determine the effect of feeding nutrient-enriched formula compared with standard term formula on growth and development for preterm infants following hospital discharge.
We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, 2011, Issue 4), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (to September 2011), conference proceedings and previous reviews.
Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared the effect of feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula (post-discharge formula or preterm formula) compared with standard term formula.
We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors.
We found 15 eligible trials in which a total of 1128 preterm infants participated. The trials were of variable methodological quality with lack of allocation concealment and incomplete follow-up in some trials being the major potential sources of bias. The trials (N = 10) that compared feeding infants with "post-discharge formula" (energy density about 74 kcal/100 ml) versus standard term formula (about 67 kcal/100 ml) did not find consistent evidence of effects on growth parameters up to 12 to 18 months corrected age. The trials (N = 5) that compared feeding with "preterm formula" (about 80 kcal/100 ml) versus term formula found some evidence of higher rates of growth through infancy: weighted mean differences at 12 to 18 months corrected age about 500 g in weight, 5 to10 mm in length, and 5 mm in head circumference. Few trials assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes and these did not detect any statistically significant differences in developmental indices at 18 months corrected age. There are not yet any data on growth or development through later childhood.
Current recommendations to prescribe "post-discharge formula" for preterm infants following hospital discharge are not supported by the available evidence. Some limited evidence exists that feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with "preterm formula" (which is generally only available for in-hospital use) may increase growth rates up to 18 months corrected age.

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Available from: Lauren Young, Oct 10, 2015
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    • "Our findings are consistent with other studies [16-20] that investigated the effect of protein and energy supplementation after discharge on preterm infants’ neurodevelopment. However, it must be underlined that in all but one (ref. "
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    ABSTRACT: Preterm infants are at risk for adverse neurodevelopment. Furthermore, nutrition may play a key role in supporting neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a nutrient-enriched formula fed to preterm infants after hospital discharge could improve their neurodevelopment at 24 months (term-corrected age). We conducted an observer-blinded, single-center, randomized controlled trial in infants admitted to the Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Italy between 2009 and 2011. Inclusion criteria were gestational age < 32 weeks and/or birth weight < 1500 g, and being fed human milk for < 20% of the total milk intake. Exclusion criteria were congenital malformations or conditions that could interfere with growth or body composition. Included infants were randomized to receive a standard full-term formula or a nutrient-enriched formula up until 6 months of corrected age, using two computer-generated randomization lists; one appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and one for small for gestational age (SGA) infants. We assessed neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale and related subscales (locomotor, personal-social, hearing and speech, hand and eye coordination, and performance). Of the 207 randomized infants, 181 completed the study. 52 AGA and 35 SGA infants were fed a nutrient-enriched formula, whereas 56 AGA and 38 SGA infants were fed a standard full-term formula. The general quotient at 24 months of corrected age was not significantly different between infants randomized to receive a nutrient-enriched formula compared with a standard term formula up until 6 months of corrected age (AGA infants: 93.8 +/- 12.6 vs. 92.4 +/- 10.4, respectively; SGA infants: 96.1 +/- 9.9 vs. 98.2 +/- 9, respectively). The scores of related subscales were also similar among groups. This study found that feeding preterm infants a nutrient-enriched formula after discharge does not affect neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age, in either AGA or SGA infants, free from major comorbidities.Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ( London, UK.
    BMC Pediatrics 03/2014; 14(1):74. DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-14-74 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The availability and composition of preterm and post-discharge formulas (PDFs) have undergone considerable changes over the last decade. Human milk, supplemented with multi-component fortifier, is the preferred feed for very preterm infants as it has beneficial effects for both short- and long-term outcomes compared with formula. If supply of mother's milk or donor milk is inadequate, a breast milk substitute specifically designed for premature infants is the next option. Preterm formula is intended to provide nutrient intakes to match intrauterine growth and nutrient accretion rates and is enriched with energy, macronutrients, minerals, vitamins, and trace elements compared with term infant formulas. Post-natal longitudinal growth failure has been reported almost universally in extremely preterm infants. Since 2009, a nutritionally enriched PDF specifically designed for preterm infants post hospital discharge with faltering growth has been available in Australia and New Zealand. This formula is an intermediary between preterm and term formulas and contains more energy (73 kcal/100 mL), protein (1.9 g/100 mL), minerals, vitamins, and trace elements than term formulas. Although the use of a PDF is based on sound nutritional knowledge, the 2012 Cochrane Systematic Review of 10 trials comparing feeding preterm infants with PDF and term formula did not demonstrate any short- or long-term benefits. Health professionals need to make individual decisions on whether and how to use PDF.
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 09/2012; 48(9):768-76. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1754.2012.02533.x · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have used an expansive definition of a micropreterm infant as <30 weeks' gestation to provide a global perspective to a "high risk" group of preterm infants for which there are little published data to guide nutritional management. Consensus nutritional guidelines for preterm infants have been developed for infants >1000 g birth weight and >28 weeks' gestational age. Micropreterm infants have greater nutritional deficits at birth than more mature preterm infants and accumulate greater postnatal deficits. Nutritional guidelines based on the needs of preterm infants born >28 weeks' gestation are unlikely, on a theoretical basis, to meet nutritional requirements of micropreterm infants. Unfortunately, very few good quality studies have addressed the nutritional requirements of this group specifically; this makes it difficult to formulate solid, evidence-based nutritional recommendations for these neonates. Nutritional management of micropreterm infants is based on recommendations established for preterm infants, which are adjusted after considering an infant's gestational age, birth weight, and clinical status. Minimal enteral feeding should commence on the first or second day of life, with incremental advancement and fortification of human milk when 100 mL/kg is tolerated. Early use of parenteral nutrition is recommended, ideally initiated within the first hours of life and enteral feeds are being established; this will help prevent the accumulation of nutritional deficits and incidence of growth failure. Fortified human milk should be given in order to meet nutritional requirements. When human milk is not available in sufficient quantity, a preterm formula should be given.
    The Journal of pediatrics 03/2013; 162(3 Suppl):S72-80. DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.11.056 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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