Efficacy of intra-articular tranexamic acid in blood loss reduction following primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: The surgical stress of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedure and the application of intra-operative pneumatic thigh tourniquet increases local fibrinolytic activity, which contributes significantly to post-operative blood loss. Tranexamic acid, an antifibrinolytic drug, is commonly used to control post-operative blood loss. The recommended mode of administration of tranexamic acid is either oral or intravenous. However, the mechanism of action of the tranexamic acid points towards the possible effectiveness it may have following local/intra-articular application. This prospective, double-blinded, randomized preliminary study evaluated the efficacy of intra-articular tranexamic acid in reducing TKA-associated post-operative blood loss. METHODS: Fifty consenting patients with osteoarthritis of the knee scheduled for primary unilateral cemented-TKA were randomly allocated to one of the two groups: Tranexamic Acid (TA) group (n = 25, 500 mg/5 ml tranexamic acid) and the control group (n = 25, 5 ml 0.9% saline). The drug and control solution were administered intra-articularly through the drain tube immediately after the wound closure. Parameters related to blood loss (drop in haemoglobin, haematocrit differential) and the drain output [volume (ml)] were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: On a comparative basis, TA-group obtained significant reduction in the drain output [95% CI: 360.41-539.59, p < 0.001] at 48 h post-operatively. Even though the control group received sixfold more blood transfusion than TA-group, it showed a greater drop in haemoglobin and haematocrit (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Local application of tranexamic acid seems to be effective in reducing post-TKA blood loss as well as blood transfusion requirements. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, Level II.
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ABSTRACT: Blood transfusions are frequently required following total knee arthroplasty. Tranexamic acid (TXA) inhibits fibrinolysis and has been shown to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements when delivered intravenously. Topical and intra-articular applications directly target bleeding sites whilst limiting systemic uptake and theoretically reduce the risk of thromboembolic complications. However, in the absence of surgical drains, which increase post-operative blood loss, the efficacy of these techniques for reducing transfusion requirements is unclear. Our aim was to determine if locally administered tranexamic acid during total knee arthroplasty could reduce both blood loss and transfusion requirements in the absence of surgical drains. A retrospective review of 248 patients treated with primary unilateral cemented total knee arthroplasty was performed. Patients treated after January 2011 received topical and intra-articular tranexamic acid at the end of the procedure (n = 136). A second group of consecutive patients treated before this period acted as historical controls (n = 112). Patient groups were equivalent in terms of age, gender and ASA grade. There was a significant reduction in mean blood loss of 246 ml between the groups (p < 0.01). In addition, the requirement for post-operative allogenic blood transfusion was significantly reduced from 15.5 to 5.4 % after introduction of the tranexamic acid regimen (p = 0.02). This is the largest patient cohort reviewed to measure the efficacy of locally administered tranexamic acid during total knee arthroplasty and demonstrates that this is an effective technique for reducing both blood loss and transfusion requirements in the absence of surgical drains.European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology 03/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00590-013-1206-1 · 0.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This systematic review was undertaken to answer three specific questions relating to the clinical values of tranexamic acid (TNA) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA): (1) Whether there are differences in blood-saving effects between the systemic and topical administrations; (2) Whether blood-saving effects of TNA differ by doses and timings of administration; and (3) Whether the use of TNA is safe at all reported doses, timings, and routes of administration with respect to the incidences of symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). METHODS: A systematic review was carried out with 28 randomised controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TNA use in TKA identified from the literature. RESULTS: Both systemic and topical administrations reduced blood loss after TKA, but transfusion reducing effects varied in studies whether systemic or topical administrations. The effects of TNA were influenced by doses and timings of administration. No increased incidences of symptomatic DVT and PE were found for all reported doses, timings, and routes of TNA administration. CONCLUSION: Surgeons can consider incorporating the use of TNA to their blood-saving protocols in TKA without serious concern of adverse events but need to adopt optimal doses, timings, and routes of TNA administrations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials, Level I.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 03/2013; 22(8). DOI:10.1007/s00167-013-2487-y · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Despite the documented blood-saving effects of tranexamic acid (TNA) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the question whether clinical values of TNA are identical in unilateral and bilateral TKAs remains unclear. This study was undertaken to determine the clinical values of TNA in unilateral and simultaneous bilateral TKAs under a contemporary blood-saving protocol in terms of efficacy (total blood loss and transfusion rate) and safety (the incidences of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). METHODS: One hundred and eighty unilateral and 146 bilateral TKA patients were randomized into TNA group or control group. In unilateral TKA patients, TNA (10 mg/kg) was administered intravenously 20 min before tourniquet deflation and repeated 3 h after surgery. In bilateral TKA patients, one more dose (10 mg/kg) was given before tourniquet deflation in the second TKA. A contemporary blood-saving protocol was applied to all patients. The TNA and control groups were compared separately in unilateral and bilateral TKA patients for the efficacy and safety variables. RESULTS: In unilateral TKA patients, the TNA group had less total blood loss (905 vs. 1,018 mL, p = 0.018) than the control group, but there was no difference in the allogenic transfusion rate (1 vs. 7 %, n.s.). In bilateral TKA patients, the TNA group showed no differences in total blood loss (1,282 vs. 1,379 mL, n.s.), but a significant reduction in the allogenic transfusion rate (7 vs. 27 %, p = 0.002). No symptomatic deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism was found in all patients. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the use of TNA reduces total blood loss, but the effects on the transfusion rate can differ depending on the type of TKAs (unilateral vs. bilateral) and the blood-saving protocols. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, Level I (double blind randomized controlled trial).Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 04/2013; 22(8). DOI:10.1007/s00167-013-2492-1 · 2.84 Impact Factor