Article

Efficacy of intra-articular tranexamic acid in blood loss reduction following primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty

Joint Replacement and Reconstruction Unit, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India, .
Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy (Impact Factor: 2.84). 03/2012; 20(12). DOI: 10.1007/s00167-012-1942-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: The surgical stress of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedure and the application of intra-operative pneumatic thigh tourniquet increases local fibrinolytic activity, which contributes significantly to post-operative blood loss. Tranexamic acid, an antifibrinolytic drug, is commonly used to control post-operative blood loss. The recommended mode of administration of tranexamic acid is either oral or intravenous. However, the mechanism of action of the tranexamic acid points towards the possible effectiveness it may have following local/intra-articular application. This prospective, double-blinded, randomized preliminary study evaluated the efficacy of intra-articular tranexamic acid in reducing TKA-associated post-operative blood loss. METHODS: Fifty consenting patients with osteoarthritis of the knee scheduled for primary unilateral cemented-TKA were randomly allocated to one of the two groups: Tranexamic Acid (TA) group (n = 25, 500 mg/5 ml tranexamic acid) and the control group (n = 25, 5 ml 0.9% saline). The drug and control solution were administered intra-articularly through the drain tube immediately after the wound closure. Parameters related to blood loss (drop in haemoglobin, haematocrit differential) and the drain output [volume (ml)] were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: On a comparative basis, TA-group obtained significant reduction in the drain output [95% CI: 360.41-539.59, p < 0.001] at 48 h post-operatively. Even though the control group received sixfold more blood transfusion than TA-group, it showed a greater drop in haemoglobin and haematocrit (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Local application of tranexamic acid seems to be effective in reducing post-TKA blood loss as well as blood transfusion requirements. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, Level II.

2 Followers
 · 
162 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is well established as a versatile intraarticular and intravenous (IV) antifibrinolytic agent that has been successfully used to control bleeding after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The present meta-analysis aimed at assessing the effectiveness and safety of TXA in reducing blood loss and transfusion in TKA. We searched the PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar databases from 1966 to December 2013. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the present study. Two independent reviewers identified the eligible studies, assessed their methodological quality, and extracted data. The data were using fixed-effects or random-effects models with standard mean differences and risk ratios for continuous and dichotomous variables, respectively. Subgroup analysis was performed according to the IV or intraarticular administration of TXA. Thirty-four RCTs encompassing 2,594 patients met the inclusion criteria for our meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis indicated that when compared with the control group, the IV or intraarticular use of TXA significantly reduced total blood loss, postoperative blood loss, Hb loss, and transfusion rate as well as blood units transfused per patient after primary TKA, but did not reduce intraoperative blood loss. No significant difference in deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, or other adverse events among the study groups. IV or intraarticular use of TXA for patients undergoing TKA is effective and safe for the reduction blood loss and blood transfusion requirements, yet does not increase the risk of postoperative DVT. Level II.
    European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00590-014-1568-z · 0.18 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Topical application of tranexamic acid to the knee joint before closure in total knee arthroplasty reduces postoperative bleeding without increase in complication. However, it is unknown the effectiveness of topic TXA performed with other topical medications, like povidone-iodine solution. One hundred and twenty-five patients were randomized to receive 100mL of povidone-iodine solution (control: group A) or 1.5 (group B) and 3.0g (group C) of topical TXA in povidone-iodine solution applied into the knee before closure in total knee arthroplasty. The patients in the TXA groups had higher mean postoperative hemoglobin levels (P=0.01 and P=0.03 in groups B and C, respectively) and a reduced postoperative blood loss in the TXA groups (P=0.07 and P=0.09 in groups B and C, respectively). No significant complications were observed. In this study, topical application of tranexamic acid after total knee arthroplasty together with povidone-iodine solution results in higher postoperative hemoglobin levels and lower blood loss compared with those in the control group without other complications. I - I: high-powered prospective randomized trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Orthopaedics & Traumatology Surgery & Research 12/2014; 101(1). DOI:10.1016/j.otsr.2014.10.013 · 1.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Knee arthroplasty has emerged as an effective treatment for end-stage gonarthrosis. Although total knee arthroplasty remains the gold standard, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty is an appropriate alternative for select patients. We sought to use a large, heterogeneous national database to identify differences in thirty-day complication rates between unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasty as well as to identify risk factors for complications.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 08/2014; 96(16):1387-94. DOI:10.2106/JBJS.M.01048 · 4.31 Impact Factor