In vivo assessment of retinal neuronal layers in multiple sclerosis with manual and automated optical coherence tomography segmentation techniques.
ABSTRACT Macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) segmentation, enabling quantification of retinal axonal and neuronal subpopulations, may help elucidate the neuroretinal pathobiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to determine the agreement, reproducibility, and visual correlations of retinal layer thicknesses measured by different OCT segmentation techniques, on two spectral-domain OCT devices. Macular scans of 52 MS patients and 30 healthy controls from Spectralis OCT and Cirrus HD-OCT were segmented using fully manual (Spectralis), computer-aided manual (Spectralis and Cirrus), and fully automated (Cirrus) segmentation techniques. Letter acuity was recorded. Bland-Altman analyses revealed low mean differences across OCT segmentation techniques on both devices for ganglion cell + inner plexiform layers (GCIP; 0.76-2.43 μm), inner nuclear + outer plexiform layers (INL + OPL; 0.36-1.04 μm), and outer nuclear layers including photoreceptor segment (ONL + PR; 1.29-3.52 μm) thicknesses. Limits of agreement for GCIP and ONL + PR thicknesses were narrow. Results of fully manual and computer-aided manual segmentation were comparable to those of fully automated segmentation. MS patients demonstrated macular RNFL, GCIP, and ONL + PR thinning compared to healthy controls across OCT segmentation techniques, irrespective of device (p < 0.03 for all). Low-contrast letter acuity in MS correlated significantly and more strongly with GCIP than peripapillary RNFL thicknesses, regardless of the segmentation method or device. GCIP and ONL + PR thicknesses, measured by different OCT devices and segmentation techniques, are reproducible and agree at the individual and cohort levels. GCIP thinning in MS correlates with visual dysfunction. Significant ONL + PR thinning, detectable across OCT segmentation techniques and devices, strongly supports ONL pathology in MS. Fully automated, fully manual and computer-assisted manual OCT segmentation techniques compare closely, highlighting the utility of accurate and time-efficient automated segmentation outcomes in MS clinical trials.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to familiarize the reader with the landscape of current neuro-ophthalmology research in the field of multiple sclerosis and to highlight important findings, directions of future research and advances in the clinical management of visual and ocular motor manifestations of multiple sclerosis. Research pertaining to the visual system in multiple sclerosis has identified new biomarkers of disease and is contributing to a better understanding of disease mechanisms. Progress has been made in the symptomatic management of visual manifestations of multiple sclerosis and visual outcome measures are now being included in clinical trials, with important quality of life ramifications. Perhaps the most prominent contribution from neuro-ophthalmology research in multiple sclerosis has been the establishment of the visual system as a model to study disease pathogenesis, and for the systematic, objective, and longitudinal detection and monitoring of protective and restorative neurotherapeutic strategies. The emergence of these sophisticated capabilities has been in large part due to the application of high speed, high definition, and objective methods for the elucidation of both the structure and function of visual system networks. Advances in neuro-ophthalmology research in multiple sclerosis have led to the establishment of the visual system as a model to objectively study disease pathogenesis, and for the identification of novel neurotherapeutic capabilities. With the prospects of myelin repair and neuroprotective agents increasingly becoming recognized as achievable goals, the validation and utility of new visual outcome measures quantifying changes in axonal integrity, myelin protection, and repair will likely prove invaluable.Current opinion in neurology 04/2014; · 5.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose:To determine if measures of macular ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer (GCL-IPL) thickness can discriminate between children with and without vision loss (visual acuity or field) from their optic pathway glioma (OPG) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods:Children with OPGs (sporadic or secondary to Neurofibromatosis type 1) enrolled in a prospective study of SD-OCT were included if they were cooperative for vision testing and macular SD-OCT images were acquired. Manual segmentation of the macular GCL-IPL and macular retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) was performed using elliptical annuli of 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5mm diameters. Logistic regression assessed the ability of GCL-IPL and RNFL thickness measures (microns) to differentiate between the normal and abnormal vision groups. Results:Forty-seven study eyes (normal vision = 31, abnormal vision = 16) from 26 children with OPGs were included. Median age was 5.3 years (range, 2.5 - 12.8). Thickness of all GCL-IPL and RNFL quadrants differed between the normal and abnormal vision groups (P < 0.01). All GCL-IPL measures demonstrated excellent discrimination between groups (area under the curve, AUC > 0.90 for all diameters). Using the lower 5th percentile threshold, the number of abnormal GCL-IPL inner macula (3.0mm) quadrants achieved the highest AUC (0.989) and was greater than the macula RNFL AUCs (P < 0.05). Conclusions:Decreased GCL-IPL thickness (< 5th percentile) can discriminate between children with and without vision loss from their OPG. GCL-IPL thickness could be used as a surrogate marker of vision in children with OPGs.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 02/2014; · 3.43 Impact Factor
- Movement Disorders 06/2014; · 5.63 Impact Factor