Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids

Tohkai Cytopathology Institute, Cancer Research and Prevention-TCI-CaRP, 5-1-2 Minami-Uzura, Gifu 500-8285, Japan.
Molecules (Impact Factor: 2.42). 12/2012; 17(3):3202-42. DOI: 10.3390/molecules17033202
Source: PubMed


Carotenoids are natural fat-soluble pigments that provide bright coloration to plants and animals. Dietary intake of carotenoids is inversely associated with the risk of a variety of cancers in different tissues. Preclinical studies have shown that some carotenoids have potent antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles for the compounds. Since chemoprevention is one of the most important strategies in the control of cancer development, molecular mechanism-based cancer chemoprevention using carotenoids seems to be an attractive approach. Various carotenoids, such as β-carotene, a-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, have been proven to have anti-carcinogenic activity in several tissues, although high doses of β-carotene failed to exhibit chemopreventive activity in clinical trials. In this review, cancer prevention using carotenoids are reviewed and the possible mechanisms of action are described.

Download full-text


Available from: Takuji Tanaka, Mar 04, 2014
    • "Fruit and vegetable consumption is increasingly being recommended as a part of a healthy lifestyle. Several studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a delay of the aging process and a decreased risk of developing inflammation and oxidative stress related to chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, cataracts, cognitive function disorders, and neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's (Eliassen et al., 2012; Forester, Choy, Waterhouse, & Oteiza, 2012; Lim et al., 2013; Pojer, Mattivi, Johnson, & Stockley, 2013; Ros et al., 2012; Tanaka, Shnimizu, & Moriwaki, 2012; Wallace, 2011). These benefits are almost always related to the presence of bioactive compounds, including carotenoids and phenolic compounds (e.g., anthocyanins). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MSn), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p < 0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p < 0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity.
  • Source
    • "The anticancer effects were confirmed in the pre-clinical studies for different carotenoids (-carotene, -carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, -cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin). However, its effectiveness in the clinical trials was not always univocal [13]. Carotenoid lycopene is a particularly beneficial carotenoid; it aids in the prevention of coronary heart disease [14], myocardial infarction [15] [16], and ischemic strokes [17], as well as for deceleration of early atherosclerosis' progression [17] [18]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The pharmacological activation of stress-defense mechanisms is one of the perspective ways to increase human lifespan. The goal of the present study was to study the effects on lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans of two carotenoids: ß-carotene and fucoxanthin, which are bioactive natural substances in human diet. In addition, the effects of carotenoids on the flies survival were studied under stress conditions, including starvation, thermal stress (35°C), oxidative stress (20mM paraquat), as well as locomotor activity, fecundity, and genes expression level. Our results demonstrated lifespan extension of flies by both carotenoids. However, the positive effects on the lifespan of C. elegans were revealed only for fucoxanthin. In presence of carotenoids were detected decreased flies' fecundity, increased spontaneous locomotor activity, and resistance to oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Pharmacological Research 08/2015; 100. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2015.08.009 · 4.41 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Carotenoids in prostate cancer Fig. 2. Schematic representation of the most common carotenoids found in human serum (Adaptaded Tanaka et al., 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to characterize the morphometry of the femoral nerve in aging rats with metabolic syndrome compared to controls. Systolic blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose were measured, and myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in the femoral nerves were quantitatively assessed under electron microscopy. Aging rats exposed to a regimen of metabolic syndrome developed elevation of plasma glucose concentration, mild hypertension and polyneuropathy characterized by a decrease in myelin fiber area, axon diameter, myelin sheath thickness and myelin fiber loss in the femoral nerve. The histogram of size distribution for myelinated fibers and axons from the aging rats of the control group was bimodal. For aging MS animals, the histogram turned out to be unimodal. The ultrastructure of unmyelinated fibers and of Schwann cells in 18-month-old rats was well preserved. Granules of lipofuscin were seen in unmyelinated fiber axons of 18-month-old rats with MS. The damage percentage of the large myelinated fibers has increased significantly in 18-month-old and 18-month-old (MS) rats in relation to the controls. No significant difference was observed among the groups for the g-ratio. Comparing the three groups, the number of neurotubules and neurofilaments in myelinated fibers of 18-month-old rats with MS was significantly smaller than for the groups of 18-month-old and 14-month-old rats. The overall changes seen in the femoral nerve from aging rats seem minor compared to the changes in the aging rats with MS, suggesting that long-term MS accelerates the progressive modifications in peripheral nerves that develop in old age.
    Histology and histopathology 06/2015; 30(10):11635. DOI:10.14670/HH-11-635 · 2.10 Impact Factor
Show more