Development of cortical surface area and gyrification in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Biological psychiatry (Impact Factor: 9.47). 03/2012; 72(3):191-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.01.031
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Delineation of the cortical anomalies underpinning attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can powerfully inform pathophysiological models. We previously found that ADHD is characterized by a delayed maturation of prefrontal cortical thickness. We now ask if this extends to the maturation of cortical surface area and gyrification.
Two hundred thirty-four children with ADHD and 231 typically developing children participated in the study, with 837 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images acquired longitudinally. We defined the developmental trajectories of cortical surfaces and gyrification and the sequence of cortical maturation, as indexed by the age at which each cortical vertex attained its peak surface area.
In both groups, the maturation of cortical surface area progressed in centripetal waves, both lateral (starting at the central sulcus and frontopolar regions, sweeping toward the mid and superior frontal gyrus) and medial (descending down the medial prefrontal cortex, toward the cingulate gyrus). However, the surface area developmental trajectory was delayed in ADHD. For the right prefrontal cortex, the median age by which 50% of cortical vertices attained peak area was 14.6 years (SE = .03) in ADHD, significantly later than in typically developing group at 12.7 years (SE = .03) [log-rank test χ(¹)² = 1300, p < .00001]. Similar, but less pronounced, delay was found in the left hemispheric lobes. There were no such diagnostic differences in the developmental trajectories of cortical gyrification.
The congruent delay in cortical thickness and surface area direct attention away from processes that selectively affect one cortical component toward mechanisms controlling the maturation of multiple cortical dimensions.

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Available from: Alan Charles Evans, Dec 27, 2013
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    • "Emerging literature suggests an important role of FPCN in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Previous structural imaging studies consistently report abnormal morphometry (Nakao, Radua, Rubia, & Mataix-Cols, 2011) and developmental trajectories (Shaw et al., 2012) in the prefrontal, cingulate and parietal structures in ADHD. Both qualitative review (Rubia, 2011) and meta-analyses (Cortese et al., 2012; Hart, Radua, Nakao, Mataix-Cols, Rubia, 2013) on task-fMRI document hypoactivation of the components within the FPCN in ADHD across tasks. "
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    ABSTRACT: The frontoparietal control network, anatomically and functionally interposed between the dorsal attention network and default mode network, underpins executive control functions. Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly exhibit deficits in executive functions, which are mainly mediated by the frontoparietal control network. Involvement of the frontoparietal control network based on the anterior prefrontal cortex in neurobiological mechanisms of ADHD has yet to be tested. We used resting-state functional MRI and seed-based correlation analyses to investigate functional connectivity of the frontoparietal control network in a sample of 25 children with ADHD (7–14 years; mean 9.94±1.77 years; 20 males), and 25 age-, sex-, and performance IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children. All participants had limited in-scanner head motion. Spearman’s rank correlations were used to test the associations between altered patterns of functional connectivity with clinical symptoms and executive functions, measured by the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test and Spatial Span in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Compared with TD children, children with ADHD demonstrated weaker connectivity between the right anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the right ventrolateral PFC, and between the left anterior PFC and the right inferior parietal lobule. Furthermore, this aberrant connectivity of the frontoparietal control network in ADHD was associated with symptoms of impulsivity and opposition-defiance, as well as impaired response inhibition and attentional control. The findings support potential integration of the disconnection model and the executive dysfunction model for ADHD. Atypical frontoparietal control network may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. ( JINS , 2015, 21 , 271–284)
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    • "However, our analyses over a wide age range (18–68 years) show that after 18 years the patients' age did not influence the rates of ADHD persistence. This result is in agreement with previous neuroimaging findings (Nakao et al. 2011; Hoekzema et al. 2012; Shaw et al. 2012) pointing to absence of age effect in the decline of ADHD symptoms in adulthood. Second, it might be suggested that complete ADHD remission in these adult patients might be influenced either by the remission of co-morbidities or by a lower cognitive demand at the time of follow-up compared to the circumstances in the first assessment. "
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    • "This lack of synchrony has also been observed in a large cross-sectional, multi-site development study (Brown et al., 2012). Three independent longitudinal studies have shown increases of surface area in children before age 10 years (Wierenga et al., 2014), 11 years (Shaw et al., 2012) or by 13–16.5 years depending on IQ (Schnack et al., 2014), followed by decreases of surface area to older ages up to 23, 17 and 60 years, respectively. However, other longitudinal studies with a ~2 year scan gap either show decreases of surface area over all four lobes in the 11–17 year range (Alemán-Gómez et al., 2013) or that most of the brain regions show no change in surface area over 6–20 years (Burgaleta et al., 2014). "
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