Antioxidant and bioenergetic coupling between neurons and astrocytes.
ABSTRACT Oxidative and nitrosative stress underlie the pathogenesis of a broad range of human diseases, in particular neurodegenerative disorders. Within the brain, neurons are the cells most vulnerable to excess reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; their survival relies on the antioxidant protection promoted by neighbouring astrocytes. However, neurons are also intrinsically equipped with a biochemical mechanism that links glucose metabolism to antioxidant defence. Neurons actively metabolize glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway, which maintains the antioxidant glutathione in its reduced state, hence exerting neuroprotection. This process is tightly controlled by a key glycolysis-promoting enzyme and is dependent on an appropriate supply of energy substrates from astrocytes. Thus brain bioenergetic and antioxidant defence is coupled between neurons and astrocytes. A better understanding of the regulation of this intercellular coupling should be important for identifying novel targets for future therapeutic interventions.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Angeles Almeida, Apr 04, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Several data suggest that excitotoxicity due to excessive glutamatergic neurotransmission may be an important factor in the mechanisms of motor neuron (MN) death occurring in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have previously shown that the overactivation of the Ca2+-permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) glutamate receptor type, through the continuous infusion of AMPA in the lumbar spinal cord of adult rats during several days, results in progressive rear limb paralysis and bilateral MN degeneration. Because it has been shown that energy failure and oxidative stress are involved in MN degeneration, in both ALS and experimental models of spinal MN degeneration, including excitotoxicity, in this work we tested the protective effect of the energy substrates pyruvate and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) and the antioxidants glutathione ethyl ester (GEE) and ascorbate in this chronic AMPA-induced neurodegeneration. Results AMPA infusion induced remarkable progressive motor deficits, assessed by two motor tasks, that by day seven reach bilateral rear limb paralysis. These effects correlate with the death of >80% of lumbar spinal MNs in the infused and the neighbor spinal cord segments, as well as with notable astrogliosis in the ventral horns, detected by glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemistry. Co-infusion with pyruvate or βHB notably prevented the motor deficits and paralysis, decreased MN loss to <25% and completely prevented the induction of astrogliosis. In contrast, the antioxidants tested were ineffective regarding all parameters analyzed. Conclusions Chronic progressive excitotoxicity due to AMPA receptors overactivation results in MN death and astrogliosis, with consequent motor deficits and paralysis. Because of the notable protection against these effects exerted by pyruvate and βHB, which are well established mitochondrial energy substrates, we conclude that deficits in mitochondrial energy metabolism are an important factor in the mechanisms of this slowly developed excitotoxic MN death, while the lack of protective effect of the antioxidants indicates that oxidative stress seems to be less significant factor. Because excitotoxicity may be involved in MN degeneration in ALS, these findings suggest possible preventive or therapeutic strategies for the disease.05/2015; 3(1). DOI:10.1186/s40478-015-0205-3
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ABSTRACT: This review provides an overview of the biochemistry of thiol redox couples and the significance of thiol redox homeostasis in neurodegenerative disease. The discussion is centred on cysteine/cystine redox balance, the significance of the xc(-) cystine-glutamate exchanger and the association between protein thiol redox balance and neurodegeneration, with particular reference to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and glaucoma. The role of thiol disulphide oxidoreductases in providing neuroprotection is also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.04/2015; 5:186-194. DOI:10.1016/j.redox.2015.04.004
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ABSTRACT: Neurotransmission unavoidably increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. However, the intrinsic antioxidant defense of neurons is weak and hence the mechanism whereby these cells are physiologically protected against oxidative damage is unknown. Here we found that the antioxidant defense of neurons is repressed owing to the continuous protein destabilization of the master antioxidant transcriptional activator, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). By contrast, Nrf2 is highly stable in neighbor astrocytes explaining their robust antioxidant defense and resistance against oxidative stress. We also show that subtle and persistent stimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) in astrocytes, through a mechanism not requiring extracellular Ca(2+) influx, upregulates a signal transduction pathway involving phospholipase C-mediated endoplasmic reticulum release of Ca(2+) and protein kinase Cδ activation. Active protein kinase Cδ promotes, by phosphorylation, the stabilization of p35, a cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) cofactor. Active p35/Cdk5 complex in the cytosol phosphorylates Nrf2 at Thr(395), Ser(433) and Thr(439) that is sufficient to promote Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus and induce the expression of antioxidant genes. Furthermore, this Cdk5-Nrf2 transduction pathway boosts glutathione metabolism in astrocytes efficiently protecting closely spaced neurons against oxidative damage. Thus, intercellular communication through NMDAR couples neurotransmission with neuronal survival.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 24 April 2015; doi:10.1038/cdd.2015.49.Cell death and differentiation 04/2015; DOI:10.1038/cdd.2015.49 · 8.39 Impact Factor