Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 infection worsens prognosis of hepatitis C virus-related living donor liver transplantation.
ABSTRACT Severe and life-threatening donor-transmitted human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infections after solid organ transplantation have been reported. However, in HTLV-1-infected recipients, graft and patient survival were not fully evaluated. A total of 140 patients underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Of these, 47 of 126 adult recipients showed indications of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease. The HTLV-1 prevalence rate was 10 of 140 recipients (7.14%) and three of 140 donors (0.02%). In HCV-related LDLT, graft and patient survival was worsened by HTLV-1 infection in recipients (seven cases). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates in the HCV/HTLV-1-co-infected group were 67%, 32%, and 15%, respectively, and the corresponding rates in the HCV-mono-infected group were 80%, 67%, and 67%, respectively. Only the 5-year survival rates were statistically significant (P=0.04, log-rank method). HTLV-1 infection in recipients is also an important factor in predicting survival in HTLV-1 endemic areas.