Leukocyte 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) is an indicator of oxidative stress, impaired metabolism, and mitochondrial dysfunction, features that have been implicated in Huntington disease (HD). Increased levels of 8OHdG have been reported in the caudate, parietal cortex, and peripherally in the serum and leukocytes, in patients diagnosed with HD. However, little is known about levels in prodromal patients and changes that might occur as the disease progresses. To address these issues, 8OHdG was tracked over time for a subset of participants enrolled in the PREDICT-HD study. Participants were stratified into four groups based on proximity to HD diagnosis at study entry: Controls (gene-negative individuals), Low (low probability of near-future diagnosis), Medium, and High. Blood samples were analyzed using Liquid Chromatography Electrochemical Array, and for comparison purposes, a separate cross-sectional sample was analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry. Longitudinal data analysis showed that initial status (at study entry) and annual rate of change varied as a function of proximity group, adjusting for sex, education, age at study entry, and site effects. Overall levels were lowest for the Control group and highest for the High group, and the rate of increase varied in a similar manner. The finding that 8OHdG concentrations increased as a function of proximity to projected disease diagnosis and duration indicates support for the continued assessment of 8OHdG as a robust clinical HD biomarker.
"Despite its ubiquitous expression, mutant HTT (mtHtt) selectively affects medium spiny striatal neurons, and oxidative stress together with mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the pathology of HD (Bano et al., 2011). Oxidative DNA damage has been reported in the caudate, parietal cortex, and peripherally in the serum and leukocytes of patients diagnosed with HD (Weir et al., 2011; Long et al., 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is a common hallmark of neuronal cell death associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, as well as brain stroke/ischemia and traumatic brain injury. Increased accumulation of reactive species of both oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) has been implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction, energy impairment, alterations in metal homeostasis and accumulation of aggregated proteins observed in neurodegenerative disorders, which lead to the activation/modulation of cell death mechanisms that include apoptotic, necrotic and autophagic pathways. Thus, the design of novel antioxidant strategies to selectively target oxidative stress and redox imbalance might represent important therapeutic approaches against neurological disorders. This work reviews the evidence demonstrating the ability of genetically encoded antioxidant systems to selectively counteract neuronal cell loss in neurodegenerative diseases and ischemic brain damage. Because gene therapy approaches to treat inherited and acquired disorders offer many unique advantages over conventional therapeutic approaches, we discussed basic research/clinical evidence and the potential of virus-mediated gene delivery techniques for antioxidant gene therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liquid chromatography (LC) separation combined with electrochemical coulometric array detection (EC), is a sensitive, reproducible, and robust technique that can detect hundreds of redox-active metabolites down to the level of femtograms on column, making it ideal for metabolomics profiling. EC detection cannot, however, structurally characterize unknown metabolites that comprise these profiles. Several aspects of LC-EC methods prevent a direct transfer to other structurally-informative analytical methods, such as LC-MS and NMR. These include system limits of detection, buffer requirements, and detection mechanisms. To address these limitations, we developed a workflow based on the concentration of plasma, metabolite extraction, and offline LC-UV fractionation. Pooled human plasma was used to provide sufficient material necessary for multiple sample concentrations and platform analyses. Offline parallel LC-EC and LC-MS methods were established that correlated standard metabolites between the LC-EC profiling method and the mass spectrometer. Peak retention times (RT) from the LC-MS and LC-EC system were linearly related (r2=0.99); thus LC-MS RTs could be directly predicted from the LC-EC signals. Subsequent offline microcoil-NMR analysis of these collected fractions was used to confirm LC-MS characterizations by providing complementary, structural data. This work provides a validated workflow that is transferrable across multiple platforms and provides the unambiguous structural identifications necessary to move primary mathematically-driven LC-EC biomarker discovery into biological and clinical utility.
Keiryn L. Bennett, Xia Wang, Cory E. Bystrom, Matthew C. Chambers, Tracy M. Andacht, Larry J. Dangott, Félix Elortza, John Leszyk, Henrik Molina, Robert L Moritz, Brett S. Phinney, J. Will Thompson, Maureen K. Bunger, David L. Tabb
Zhiwei Hu, Ziming Wang, Yong Liu, Yan Wu, Xuejiao Han, Jian Zheng, Xiufeng Yan, Yang Wang
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