Effect of Poria cocos on hypertonic stress-induced water channel expression and apoptosis in renal collecting duct cells

Department of Oriental Medicine and Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749, Republic of Korea
Journal of ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.94). 03/2012; 141(1):368-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.048
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A major physiological role of the kidney is to regulate body water and urine concentration. Aquaporin-2 (AQP2), a family of water channels, plays an important role in the urinary concentrating process and regulation of water balance in the kidney. The dried sclerotia of Poria cocos Wolf has been known to have a diuretic effect and used for the treatment of chronic edema and nephrosis.
This study was conducted to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the sclerotia of Poria cocos (WPC) on hypertonic stress-induced AQP2 expression and apoptosis in inner medullary collecting duct cell lines (IMCD-3).
Hypertonic stress was induced by 175mM NaCl. Inhibitory effect of WPC on hypertonic stress-induced AQP2 expression and apoptosis were determined by western blot, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescence.
Hypertonic stress (175mM NaCl) increased in the levels of AQP2 expression by hypertonicity in IMCD-3 cells. WPC attenuated the hypertonicity-induced increase in protein and mRNA levels of AQP2 in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with WPC attenuated hypertonicity-induced cell death. Hypertonicity increased serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase (Sgk1) phosphorylation, however, WPC attenuated the hypertonicity-induced Sgk1 activation. Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) mRNA was also recovered by WPC under hypertonic stress. Pretreatment with WPC presented the similar effect of PKA inhibitor which decreased hypertonic stress-induced AQP2 expression. Hypertonicity increased cAMP levels and the changes were blocked by WPC. On the other hand, hypertonic stress-induced Bax or caspase-3 expression was decreased by WPC, resulting in anti-apoptotic effect.
These results provided evidence that the beneficial effect of WPC in water balance against in vitro hypertonic stress of renal collecting ducts. In addition, WPC exhibits anti-apoptotic property response to hypertonic stress. Thus, these data suggests that WPC has benefit for the therapeutic approach to the inhibition of renal disorder.

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    • "W. extensa contains two principal groups of chemicals: the triterpene fraction and the polysaccharide fraction [35]. Modern phytochemical and pharmacological researches demonstrated that main active constituents such as triterpenoids and polysaccharides isolated from W. extensa had antioxidant, antitumor, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, nematicidal activities, antihypertonic stress effect, and antihyperglycemic property [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42]. This species fungus has not only long been utilized to treat a wide variety of diseases, but also recently has attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry. "
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    ABSTRACT: The fungus species Wolfiporia extensa has a long history of medicinal usage and has also been commercially used to formulate nutraceuticals and functional foods in certain Asian countries. In the present study, a practical and promising method has been developed to discriminate the dried sclerotium of W. extensa collected from different geographical sites based on UV spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods. Characteristic fingerprint of low polar constituents of sample extracts that originated from chloroform has been obtained in the interval 250–400 nm. Chemometric pattern recognition methods such as partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied to enhance the authenticity of discrimination of the specimens. The results showed that W. extensa samples were well classified according to their geographical origins. The proposed method can fully utilize diversified fingerprint characteristics of sclerotium of W. extensa and requires low-cost equipment and short-time analysis in comparison with other techniques. Meanwhile, this simple and efficient method may serve as a basis for the authentication of other medicinal fungi.
    12/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/519424
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    • "Edible and medicinal mushrooms are integral in natural medicine and have been used for millennia to prevent or treat various diseases. Poria cocos Wolf (Polyporaceae) is a well-known medicinal fungus that grows around the roots of pine trees in Asia and North America (Lee et al., 2012). Fu-Ling (in Chinese) or Hoelen (in Japanese), the inner part of the dried sclerotia of Poria cocos, is a renowned Chinese drug and is combined in many traditional Chinese prescriptions as a diuretic, sedative and tonic to treat chronic gastritis, oedema, nephrosis, gastric atony, acute gastroenteric catarrh, nausea, emesis and dizziness (Tai et al., 1995; Okui et al., 1996). "
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    ABSTRACT: Poria cocos Wolf (Polyporaceae) is a well-known medicinal fungus, the epidermis (''Fu-Ling-Pi'' in Chinese) of the sclerotia is used as a diuretic for treating oedema and promoting the diuretic process. In this paper we report on the diuretic activity in rats of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and the remaining fractions of the ethanol extract from the epidermis of Poria cocos. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and the remaining fractions of the ethanol extract of Fu-Ling-Pi were orally administered to rats. The urinary excretion rate and the pH and electrolyte excretion were measured in the urine of saline-loaded rats. In this study, all the tested fractions of Fu-Ling-Pi increased the urinary excretion rate. The three doses of the ethyl acetate fraction all produced remarkable urinary output in 6 hours, and all produced a remarkable increase in Na(+) excretion and Cl(-) excretion. The Na(+)/K(+) value in the experimental group was significantly enhanced compared with that of the control group, but the three doses of the ethyl acetate fraction had no effect on the K(+) excretion. The 25-mg/kg and 50-mg/kg doses of the n-butanol fraction showed notable urinary output and produced a remarkable increase of Na(+) excretion and Cl(-) excretion, but the two doses did not produce a remarkable effect on the Na(+)/K(+) value. The petroleum ether and remaining fractions did not show remarkable diuretic activities compared with the control group. This study confirmed that the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions present a remarkable diuretic effect, showing that they are the diuretic bioactive fractions of Fu-Ling-Pi. This finding appears to indicate at least two mechanisms for the observed diuretic activity, and the K(+)-saving diuretic effect may be related to the triterpenoid components of intermediate polarity contained in this fungus, particularly the lanostanes tetracyclic triterpenoids.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 10/2013; 150(3):1114-1118. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2013.10.043 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    • "It is prepared from the dried sclerotia of P. cocos Wolf as Fuling in China and Hoelen in Japan. The inner parts of the sclerotia of P. cocos, called ''Fu-Ling'' in Chinese, are used to treat chronic gastritis, acute gastroenteric catarrh, gastric atony, oedema, nephrosis, dizziness, nausea and emesis (Ríos, 2011; Lee et al., 2012). As reported previously, the chemical constituents of Fu-Ling mainly include triterpenes, polysaccharides and steroids (Sekiya et al., 2003; Chen and Chang, 2004; Wang et al., 2004; Akihisa et al., 2007; Zheng and Yang, 2008a, 2008b; Ríos, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Poria cocos Wolf (Polyporaceae) is a well-known traditional East-Asian medicinal fungus. the epidermis ("Fu-Ling-Pi" in Chinese) of the sclerotia is used as a diuretic. This study was conducted to evaluate of ethanol extract (EE) and aqueous extract (AE) of the diuretic activity of Fu-Ling-Pi in saline-loaded rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The EE and AE were orally administered to rats. Urinary excretion rate, pH and electrolyte excretion were measured in the urine of saline-loaded rats. RESULTS: Urinary excretion rates were significantly increased by the EE. The three doses of AE only produced a slight increase urinary output. The EE had little or no effect on K(+) excretion, but did indeed induce a notable excretion of Na(+), that was in agreement with the urinary excretion. The three doses of AE produced an increase Na(+) and K(+) excretion, but did not arrive at statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirmed that the not aqueous but ethanol extracts of the epidermis of Poria cocos presents a remarkable diuretic effect.
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 10/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2012.09.033 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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