Effect of Poria cocos on hypertonic stress-induced water channel expression and apoptosis in renal collecting duct cells.
ABSTRACT A major physiological role of the kidney is to regulate body water and urine concentration. Aquaporin-2 (AQP2), a family of water channels, plays an important role in the urinary concentrating process and regulation of water balance in the kidney. The dried sclerotia of Poria cocos Wolf has been known to have a diuretic effect and used for the treatment of chronic edema and nephrosis.
This study was conducted to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the sclerotia of Poria cocos (WPC) on hypertonic stress-induced AQP2 expression and apoptosis in inner medullary collecting duct cell lines (IMCD-3).
Hypertonic stress was induced by 175mM NaCl. Inhibitory effect of WPC on hypertonic stress-induced AQP2 expression and apoptosis were determined by western blot, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescence.
Hypertonic stress (175mM NaCl) increased in the levels of AQP2 expression by hypertonicity in IMCD-3 cells. WPC attenuated the hypertonicity-induced increase in protein and mRNA levels of AQP2 in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with WPC attenuated hypertonicity-induced cell death. Hypertonicity increased serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase (Sgk1) phosphorylation, however, WPC attenuated the hypertonicity-induced Sgk1 activation. Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) mRNA was also recovered by WPC under hypertonic stress. Pretreatment with WPC presented the similar effect of PKA inhibitor which decreased hypertonic stress-induced AQP2 expression. Hypertonicity increased cAMP levels and the changes were blocked by WPC. On the other hand, hypertonic stress-induced Bax or caspase-3 expression was decreased by WPC, resulting in anti-apoptotic effect.
These results provided evidence that the beneficial effect of WPC in water balance against in vitro hypertonic stress of renal collecting ducts. In addition, WPC exhibits anti-apoptotic property response to hypertonic stress. Thus, these data suggests that WPC has benefit for the therapeutic approach to the inhibition of renal disorder.
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ABSTRACT: Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), a traditional herbal prescription composed of Rehmannia glutinosa Liboschitz var. purpurae, Lycium chinense, Aquillaria agallocha, Poria cocos, Panax ginseng, and honey, has been widely used in traditional Oriental medicine as a vitalizing medicine or as the prescription for patients with age-associated disorders such as amnesia and stroke. However, the potential protective value of KOK for the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is largely unknown. We investigated whether pre-administration (daily from 2 hours before PCOS induction) and post-administration (daily after induction of PCOS) of KOK (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg/day, p.o.) could have a protective effect in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, s.c.)-induced PCOS rat model. Pre-administration of KOK significantly decreased the elevated body weight and ovary weight, elevated size and number of follicular cysts, elevated level of serum glucose, and estradiol after DHEA injection. KOK reduced the elevated percentage of CD8 (+) T lymphocytes in lymph nodes, the elevated mRNA expression of CD11b and CD3 in ovaries, and infiltration of macrophages in ovarian tissue with PCOS. KOK diminished the increased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α), chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1), and iNOS in the ovaries, and increased the reduced mRNA expression of growth factors (EGF, TGF-β) by DHEA injection. Post-administration of KOK also improved the DHEA-induced PCOS-like symptoms, generally similar to those evident from pre-administration of KOK. KOK may effectively prevent and improve DHEA-induced PCOS via anti-inflammatory action, indicating its preventive and therapeutic potential for suppressing PCOS.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e87623. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Poria cocos Wolf (Polyporaceae) is a well-known medicinal fungus, the epidermis (''Fu-Ling-Pi'' in Chinese) of the sclerotia is used as a diuretic for treating oedema and promoting the diuretic process. In this paper we report on the diuretic activity in rats of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and the remaining fractions of the ethanol extract from the epidermis of Poria cocos. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and the remaining fractions of the ethanol extract of Fu-Ling-Pi were orally administered to rats. The urinary excretion rate and the pH and electrolyte excretion were measured in the urine of saline-loaded rats. In this study, all the tested fractions of Fu-Ling-Pi increased the urinary excretion rate. The three doses of the ethyl acetate fraction all produced remarkable urinary output in 6 hours, and all produced a remarkable increase in Na(+) excretion and Cl(-) excretion. The Na(+)/K(+) value in the experimental group was significantly enhanced compared with that of the control group, but the three doses of the ethyl acetate fraction had no effect on the K(+) excretion. The 25-mg/kg and 50-mg/kg doses of the n-butanol fraction showed notable urinary output and produced a remarkable increase of Na(+) excretion and Cl(-) excretion, but the two doses did not produce a remarkable effect on the Na(+)/K(+) value. The petroleum ether and remaining fractions did not show remarkable diuretic activities compared with the control group. This study confirmed that the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions present a remarkable diuretic effect, showing that they are the diuretic bioactive fractions of Fu-Ling-Pi. This finding appears to indicate at least two mechanisms for the observed diuretic activity, and the K(+)-saving diuretic effect may be related to the triterpenoid components of intermediate polarity contained in this fungus, particularly the lanostanes tetracyclic triterpenoids.Journal of ethnopharmacology 10/2013; 150(3):1114-1118. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glossodynia is often refractory to conventional medicine, and there is only limited evidence to guide clinicians in its management. Patients with refractory glossodynia are often introduced to Japanese traditional herbal (Kampo) medicine experts under such circumstances because Kampo medicine has become known in Japan to be effective in treating a wide variety of symptoms refractory to conventional medicine. Herein, we report our single-institution 5-year experience treating patients with Kampo medicine for primary glossodynia that was refractory to conventional medicine. We found that 69.2% of patients reported a beneficial effect of Kampo medicine on glossodynia, and the average onset of improvement was 8.0 ± 7.7 weeks after starting Kampo treatment. The top two frequently used Kampo medicines for glossodynia were seinetsuhokito and mibakuekkito among high responders who showed a decrease of severity by 50% or more. The top four most overlapped herbs among effective Kampo medicines for glossodynia were Glycyrrhiza Root, Ginseng Root, Hoelen, and Atractylodes (lancea) Rhizome, which compose an essential Kampo prescription called shikunshito. Although more research is required to further clarify the effectiveness of Kampo medicine, it has valid efficacy even in cases of glossodynia that remain incurable by conventional treatments.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:354872. · 1.72 Impact Factor