Effect of Poria cocos on hypertonic stress-induced water channel expression and apoptosis in renal collecting duct cells.
ABSTRACT A major physiological role of the kidney is to regulate body water and urine concentration. Aquaporin-2 (AQP2), a family of water channels, plays an important role in the urinary concentrating process and regulation of water balance in the kidney. The dried sclerotia of Poria cocos Wolf has been known to have a diuretic effect and used for the treatment of chronic edema and nephrosis.
This study was conducted to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the sclerotia of Poria cocos (WPC) on hypertonic stress-induced AQP2 expression and apoptosis in inner medullary collecting duct cell lines (IMCD-3).
Hypertonic stress was induced by 175mM NaCl. Inhibitory effect of WPC on hypertonic stress-induced AQP2 expression and apoptosis were determined by western blot, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescence.
Hypertonic stress (175mM NaCl) increased in the levels of AQP2 expression by hypertonicity in IMCD-3 cells. WPC attenuated the hypertonicity-induced increase in protein and mRNA levels of AQP2 in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with WPC attenuated hypertonicity-induced cell death. Hypertonicity increased serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase (Sgk1) phosphorylation, however, WPC attenuated the hypertonicity-induced Sgk1 activation. Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) mRNA was also recovered by WPC under hypertonic stress. Pretreatment with WPC presented the similar effect of PKA inhibitor which decreased hypertonic stress-induced AQP2 expression. Hypertonicity increased cAMP levels and the changes were blocked by WPC. On the other hand, hypertonic stress-induced Bax or caspase-3 expression was decreased by WPC, resulting in anti-apoptotic effect.
These results provided evidence that the beneficial effect of WPC in water balance against in vitro hypertonic stress of renal collecting ducts. In addition, WPC exhibits anti-apoptotic property response to hypertonic stress. Thus, these data suggests that WPC has benefit for the therapeutic approach to the inhibition of renal disorder.
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ABSTRACT: Nephrotic syndrome is associated with altered renal handling of water and sodium and changes in the levels of aquaporins (AQPs) and epithelial Na channels (ENaCs). The dried sclerotia of Poria cocos Wolf (WPC) have been used for treating chronic edema and nephrosis. We evaluated the effects of WPC on puromycin aminonucleoside- (PAN-) induced renal functional derangement and altered renal AQP2 and ENaC expression. In the nephrotic syndrome rat model, animals were injected with 75 mg/kg PAN and then treated with Losartan (30 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1)) or WPC (200 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1)) for 7 days. In the WPC group, proteinuria and ascites improved significantly. Plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol reduced significantly in the WPC group. In addition, the WPC group exhibited attenuation of the PAN-induced increase in AQP2 and ENaC α/β subunit protein and mRNA levels. WPC suppressed significantly PAN-induced organic osmolyte regulators, reducing serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase (Sgk1) and sodium-myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) mRNA expression. Our results show that WPC improves nephrotic syndrome, including proteinuria and ascites, through inhibition of AQP2 and ENaC expression. Therefore, WPC influences body-fluid regulation via inhibition of water and sodium channels, thereby, improving renal disorders such as edema or nephrosis.Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 01/2014; 2014:570420.
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ABSTRACT: The fungus species Wolfiporia extensa has a long history of medicinal usage and has also been commercially used to formulate nutraceuticals and functional foods in certain Asian countries. In the present study, a practical and promising method has been developed to discriminate the dried sclerotium of W. extensa collected from different geographical sites based on UV spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods. Characteristic fingerprint of low polar constituents of sample extracts that originated from chloroform has been obtained in the interval 250–400 nm. Chemometric pattern recognition methods such as partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied to enhance the authenticity of discrimination of the specimens. The results showed that W. extensa samples were well classified according to their geographical origins. The proposed method can fully utilize diversified fingerprint characteristics of sclerotium of W. extensa and requires low-cost equipment and short-time analysis in comparison with other techniques. Meanwhile, this simple and efficient method may serve as a basis for the authentication of other medicinal fungi.Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry. 12/2014; 2014.
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ABSTRACT: This study was investigated to know whether pachymic acid (PA), one of the predominant triterpenoids in Poria cocos (Hoelen) has the sedative-hypnotic effects, and underlying mechanisms are mediated via γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic systems. Oral administration of PA markedly suppressed locomotion activity in mice. This compound also prolonged sleeping time, and reduced sleep latency showing synergic effects with muscimol (0.2 mg/kg) in shortening sleep onset and enhancing sleep time induced by pentobarbital, both at the hypnotic (40 mg/kg) and sub-hypnotic (28 mg/kg) doses. Additionally, PA elevated intracellular chloride levels in hypothalamic primary cultured neuronal cells of rats. Moreover, Western blotting quantitative results showed that PA in-creased the amount of protein level expression of GAD65/67 over a broader range of doses. PA increased α- and β-subunits protein levels, but decreased γ-subunit protein levels in GABAA receptors. The present experiment provides evidence for the hypnotic effects as PA enhanced pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors via GABAA-ergic mechanisms in rodents. Taken together, it is proposed that PA may be useful for the treatment of sleep disturbed subjects with insomnia.Biomolecules and Therapeutics 07/2014; 22(2014):314-320. · 0.84 Impact Factor