Rasch analysis of items from two self-report measures of motor function: determination of item difficulty and relationships with children's ability levels.
ABSTRACT The aim of this article was to determine item measurement properties of a set of items selected from the Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ) and the Pediatric Outcome Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) using Rasch analysis, and to explore relationships between the FAQ/PODCI combined set of items, FAQ walking scale level, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels, and the Gait Deviation Index on a common measurement scale.
Rasch analysis was performed on data from a retrospective chart review of parent-reported FAQ and PODCI data from 485 individuals (273 males; 212 females; mean age 9 y 10 mo, SD 3 y 10 mo) who underwent first-time three-dimensional gait analysis. Of the 485 individuals, 289 had a diagnosis of cerebral palsy (104 GMFCS level I, 97 GMFCS level II, 69 GMFCS level III, and 19 GMFCS level IV). Rasch-based person abilities and item difficulties based on subgroups defined by the FAQ walking scale level, Gait Deviation Index, and the GMFCS level were compared.
The FAQ/PODCI item set demonstrated necessary Rasch characteristics to support its use as a combined measurement scale. Item groupings at similar difficulty levels were consistent with the mean person abilities of subgroups based on FAQ walking scale level, Gait Deviation Index, and GMFCS level.
Rasch-derived person ability scores from the FAQ/PODCI combined item set are consistent with clinical measures. Rasch analysis provides insights that may improve interpretation of the difficulty of motor functions for children with disabilities.
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ABSTRACT: The goal of orthopaedic interventions is to improve the functional health of patients, particularly physical function. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) commissioned a work group to construct functional health outcomes scales for children and adolescents, focusing on musculoskeletal health. The work group developed scales assessing upper extremity function, transfers and mobility, physical function and sports, comfort (pain free), happiness and satisfaction, and expectations for treatment. Parent and adolescent self-report forms were developed and tested on 470 subjects aged 2-18 years. The POSNA scales demonstrated good reliability, construct validity, sensitivity to change over a 9-month period, and ability to outperform a standard instrument, the Child Health Questionnaire physical functioning scale. They were useful for a wide variety of ages and diagnoses. They appear to be ideally suited for orthopaedic surgeons to assess the functional health and efficacy of treatment of their patients at baseline and follow-up.Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 18(5):561-71. · 1.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article describes a new multivariate measure of overall gait pathology called the Gait Deviation Index (GDI). The first step in developing the GDI was to use kinematic data from a large number of walking strides to derive a set of mutually independent joint rotation patterns that efficiently describe gait. These patterns are called gait features. Linear combinations of the first 15 gait features produced a 98% faithful reconstruction of both the data from which they were derived and 1000 validation strides not used in the derivation. The GDI was then defined as a scaled distance between the 15 gait feature scores for a subject and the average of the same 15 gait feature scores for a control group of typically developing (TD) children. Concurrent and face validity data for the GDI are presented through comparisons with the Gillette Gait Index (GGI), Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire Walking Scale (FAQ), and topographic classifications within the diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy (CP). The GDI and GGI are strongly correlated (r(2)=0.56). The GDI scales with FAQ level, distinguishes levels from one another, and is normally distributed across FAQ levels six to ten and among TD children. The GDI also scales with respect to clinical involvement based on topographic CP classification in Hemiplegia Types I-IV, Diplegia, Triplegia and Quadriplegia. The GDI offers an alternative to the GGI as a comprehensive quantitative gait pathology index, and can be readily computed using the electronic addendum provided with this article.Gait & Posture 07/2008; 28(3):351-7. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The increasing use of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) to generate outcome measures during rehabilitation has prompted questions concerning score interpretation. The purpose of this study was to describe meaningful interpretations of functional status (FS) outcome measures estimated with a body part-specific CAT developed from the Lower-Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS). This investigation was a prospective cohort study of 8,714 people who had hip impairments and were receiving physical therapy in 257 outpatient clinics in 31 states (United States) between January 2005 and June 2007. Four approaches were used to clinically interpret outcome data. First, the standard error of the estimate was used to construct the 90% confidence interval for each CAT-generated score estimate. Second, percentile ranks were applied to FS scores. Third, 2 threshold approaches were used to define individual subject-level change: statistically reliable change and clinically important change. The fourth approach was a functional staging method. The precision of a single score was estimated from the FS score +/-4. On the basis of the score distribution, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile ranks corresponded to intake FS scores of 40, 48, and 59 and discharge FS scores of 50, 61, and 75, respectively. The reliable change index supported the conclusion that changes in FS scores of 7 or more units represented statistically reliable change, and receiver operating characteristic analyses supported the conclusion that changes in FS scores of 6 or more units represented minimal clinically important improvement. Participants were classified into 5 hierarchical levels of FS using a functional staging method. Because this study was a secondary analysis of prospectively collected data via a proprietary database management company, generalizability of results may be limited to participating clinics. The results demonstrated how outcome measures generated from the hip LEFS CAT can be interpreted to improve clinical meaning. This finding might facilitate the use of patient-reported outcomes by clinicians during rehabilitation services.Physical Therapy 08/2009; 89(9):957-68. · 2.78 Impact Factor