Effects of child rearing by schizophrenic mothers: a follow-up.
ABSTRACT Two groups of offspring born to schizophrenic mothers, one group mother-reared, the other reared-apart, were evaluated for pathology 9 yr after an initial evaluation. The assessment techniques were: Current and Past Psychopathology Scales, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Vocabulary subtest, Kent-Rosanoff Word Association Test, Memory-For- Designs test, Embedded Figures Test, Titchener Circles Illusion, Felt Figure Technique, avoidance learning, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, an adjective check list. There was no evidence that rearing by a schizophrenic mother contributes to psychopathology.
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ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder manifesting combined environmental and genetic causation. Recently, genome-wide association experiments yielded remarkable new experimental evidence that is leading to a better understanding of the genetic models and the biological risk factors involved in schizophrenia. These studies have discovered uncommon copy number variations (mainly deletions) and common single nucleotide polymorphisms with alleles associated with schizophrenia. The aggregate data provide support for polygenic inheritance and for genetic overlap of schizophrenia with autism and with bipolar disorder. It is anticipated that the application of a myriad of tools from systems biology, in combination with biological functional experiments, will lead to a delineation of biological pathways involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and eventually to new therapies.The Psychiatric clinics of North America 03/2010; 33(1):35-66. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The work conducted using genome-wide approaches during the past several years has invigorated the field, and represents the dawn of molecular genetics of schizophrenia. The aggregate data increasingly support a combination of rare and common genetic variation in schizophrenia, a major role for polygenic inheritance, and a genetic overlap of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder and autism. The current and upcoming resequencing programs (full exomes to full genomes), in combination with the use of more informative genotyping arrays, will allow a more thorough dissection of the molecular genetics of the disorder. A main challenge for the field is the translation of established genetic associations into a better pathophysiological understanding of schizophrenia.Annual review of genomics and human genetics 06/2011; 12:121-44. · 11.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One of the most important findings that has emerged from human behavioral genetics involves the environment rather than heredity, providing the best available evidence for the importance of environmental influences on personality, psychopathology, and cognition. The research also converges on the remarkable conclusion that these environmental influences make two children in the same family as different from one another as are pairs of children selected randomly from the population. The theme of the target article is that environmental differences between children in the same family (called "nonshared environment") represent the major source of environmental variance for personality, psychopathology, and cognitive abilities. One example of the evidence that supports this conclusion involves correlations for pairs of adopted children reared in the same family from early in life. Because these children share family environment but not heredity, their correlation directly estimates the importance of shared family environment. For most psychological characteristics, correlations for adoptive "siblings" hover near zero, which implies that the relevant environmental influences are not shared by children in the same family. Although it has been thought that cognitive abilities represent an exception to this rule, recent data suggest that environmental variance that affects IQ is also of the nonshared variety after adolescence. The article has three goals: (1) To describe quantitative genetic methods and research that lead to the conclusion that nonshared environment is responsible for most environmental variation relevant to psychological development, (2) to discuss specific nonshared environmental influences that have been studied to date, and (3) to consider relationships between nonshared environmental influences and behavioral differences between children in the same family. The reason for presenting this article in BBS is to draw attention to the far-reaching implications of finding that psychologically relevant environmental influences make children in a family different from, not similar to, one another.International Journal of Epidemiology 06/2011; 40(3):563-82. · 6.98 Impact Factor