Global transcriptional profiling in porcine mammary glands from late pregnancy to peak lactation.
ABSTRACT Sow milk yield and quality is crucial for the survival and growth of piglets. To understand the molecular mechanisms of lactogenesis and lactation, mammary tissue samples were taken from six sows at -17(±2), 1 and 17(±2) days relative to parturition. Mammary tissues from two sows in the same stage were used to extract RNA, which were subsequently pooled in equal amounts. Nine pooled samples were hybridized to porcine Affymetrix GeneChips. Totally 1,524 genes were detected as significantly differentially expressed over the time course tested (p<0.01, q<0.01, fold change≥2 or ≤-2), including 709 upregulated and 575 downregulated genes identified at peak lactation compared to late pregnancy. Gene ontology analysis revealed that most of the upregulated genes were involved in transport, biosynthetic processes, and homeostasis, whereas most of the downregulated genes were involved in intracellular signaling cascades, cell cycle, and DNA replication. Furthermore, we identified 64 differentially expressed genes of the solute carrier families. Taken together, our microarray analysis provides insights into previously uncharacterized changes in transcriptome between late pregnancy and peak lactation in the porcine mammary gland. The solute carrier genes and other differentially expressed genes identified in this study will guide further characterization of their function to enhance milk yield and piglet growth.
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ABSTRACT: During gestation and lactation, a series of metabolic changes that are affected by the diet occurs in various organs of the mother. However, little is known about how the dietary protein (DP)/carbohydrate (DCH) ratio regulates the expression of metabolic genes in the mother. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to study the effect of consuming different percentages of DP/DCH, specifically 10/73, 20/63 and 30/53%, on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and protein synthesis in the mammary gland, liver and adipose tissue during gestation and lactation in dams. While the amount of weight gained during gestation was similar for all groups, only dams fed with 30/53% DP/DCH maintained their weight during lactation. In the mammary gland, the expression of the genes involved in lipogenesis, specifically SREBP1 and FAS, was dramatically increased, and the expression of the genes involved in protein synthesis, such as mTOR1, and the phosphorylation of its target protein, S6K, were also increased throughout pregnancy and lactation, regardless of the concentration of DP/DCH. In the liver and adipose tissue, the expression of the genes and proteins involved in lipid metabolism was dependent on the proportion of DP/DCH. The consumption of a low-protein/high-carbohydrate diet increased the expression of lipogenic genes in the liver and adipose tissue and the amount of lipid deposition in the liver. Conversely, the consumption of a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet increased the expression of genes involved in amino acid oxidation in the liver during gestation. The metabolic adaptations reflected by the changes in the expression of metabolic genes indicate that the mammary gland has a priority for milk synthesis, whereas the adaptations in the liver and adipose tissue are responsible for providing nutrients to the mammary gland to sustain milk synthesis.PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e69338. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review describes the properties and regulation of the membrane transport proteins which supply the mammary gland with aminonitrogen to support metabolism under different physiological conditions (i.e. pregnancy, lactation and involution). Early studies focussed on characterising amino acid and peptide transport pathways with respect to substrate specificity, kinetics and hormonal regulation to allow a broad picture of the systems within the gland to be established. Recent investigations have concentrated on identifying the individual transporters at the molecular level (i.e. mRNA and protein). Many of the latter studies have identified the molecular correlates of the transport systems uncovered in the earlier functional investigations but in turn have also highlighted the need for more amino acid transport studies to be performed. The transporters function as either cotransporters and exchangers (or both) and act in a coordinated and regulated fashion to support the metabolic needs of the gland. However, it is apparent that a physiological role for a number of the transport proteins has yet to be elucidated. This article highlights the many gaps in our knowledge regarding the precise cellular location of a number of amino acid transporters within the gland. We also describe the role of amino acid transport in mammary cell volume regulation. Finally, the important role that individual mammary transport proteins may have in the growth and proliferation of mammary tumours is discussed.Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 10/2013; · 7.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We used the newly-developed Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA) and gene network analysis to study the sow mammary transcriptome at 80, 100, and 110 days of pregnancy. A swine oligoarray with 13,290 inserts was used for transcriptome profiling. An ANOVA with false discovery rate (FDR < 0.15) correction resulted in 1,409 genes with a significant time effect across time comparisons. The DIA uncovered that Fatty acid biosynthesis, Interleukin-4 receptor binding, Galactose metabolism, and mTOR signaling were among the most-impacted pathways. IL-4 receptor binding, ABC transporters, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and Jak-STAT signaling were markedly activated at 110 days compared with 80 and 100 days. Epigenetic and transcription factor regulatory mechanisms appear important in coordinating the final stages of mammary development during pregnancy. Network analysis revealed a crucial role for TP53, ARNT2, E2F4, and PPARG. The bioinformatics analyses revealed a number of pathways and functions that perform an irreplaceable role during late gestation to farrowing.Bioinformatics and biology insights 01/2013; 7:193-216.