A dynamic view of depressive symptoms and neurocognitive change among patients with coronary artery disease.
ABSTRACT Older patients with coronary artery disease often experience depressive symptoms and are vulnerable to developing cognitive impairment. Whether depressive symptoms increase their risk of cognitive decline is unknown.
To examine the association between the stability of depressive symptoms and cognitive decline for 30 months among patients undergoing coronary angiography and to explore whether any observed associations were modified by the presence of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele.
Urban tertiary care hospital serving southern Alberta.
Three hundred fifty patients 60 years or older (73.7% male) undergoing nonemergent catheterization (October 27, 2003, through February 28, 2007) without prior revascularization. We compared a baseline measure of depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥5) with a dynamic measure capturing change from baseline to 12 months.
Mean change in domain (z scores for attention/executive function, learning/memory, and verbal fluency) and global (raw Mini-Mental State Examination) cognitive scores from baseline to 6, 12, and 30 months and from 12 to 30 months.
In adjusted models, participants with persistent depressive symptoms (at baseline and ≥1follow-up visit) showed significantly greater declines at 30 months in attention/executive function (mean z score change, -0.22), learning/memory (-0.19), verbal fluency (-0.18), and global cognition (mean Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score change, -0.99) compared with participants with no or baseline-only depressive symptoms. Persistent depressive symptoms were associated with significantly greater declines in all cognitive measures from 12 to 30 months after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. For global cognition, a significantly greater decline was evident for patients with persistent depressive symptoms and the APOE ε4 allele (mean MMSE score change, -2.93 [95% CI, -4.40 to -1.45]).
Depressive symptoms persist in some patients with coronary artery disease, placing them at a greater risk for cognitive decline. Whether this decline is additionally modified by the presence of APOE ε4 requires further investigation.
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ABSTRACT: As life expectancy lengthens, dementia is becoming a significant human condition in terms of its prevalence and cost to society worldwide. It is important in that context to understand the preventable and treatable causes of dementia. This article exposes the link between dementia and heart disease in all its forms, including coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, valvular disease, and heart failure. This article also explores the cardiovascular risk factors and emphasizes that several of them are preventable and treatable. In addition to medical therapies, the lifestyle changes that may be useful in retarding the onset of dementia are also summarized.Clinical Epidemiology 01/2013; 5:135-45.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The additive effects of cognitive impairment and depression on mortality risk after cardiac surgery are unknown. METHODS: Patients were assessed on a battery of six neurocognitive measures before cardiac surgery (N=521) and at six month follow up (N=377/521, 72.4%). Cognitive impairment classification was based on cognitive test scores 1 SD below age and sex matched normative data, and classified according to amnestic, non-amnestic and mixed cognitive impairment subtypes. Survival analyses entered cognitive impairment subtypes and depression interactions terms adjusted for 12 common risk factors. RESULTS: There were 5407 person years for analysis (median 11.1year survival, interquartile range of 7.9 to 13.1) and 176 deaths (33.8%) by the census date. Before cardiac surgery, patients with a mixed-cognitive impairment (adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=2.53; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.57-4.06, p<.001) and non-amnestic cognitive impairment (adjusted HR=1.51; 95%, 1.00-2.32, p=.05) were at greater mortality risk. Six month analyses corroborated that the mixed-cognitive impairment group were at higher mortality risk (adjusted HR=2.35; 95% CI, 1.30-4.25, p=.005). When change in neurocognitive functioning over time was analyzed, a higher mortality risk was evident only amongst patients with cognitive impairment evident at baseline and six months (adjusted HR=1.83; 95% CI, 1.08-3.10, p=.03). No cognition by depression interaction term was significant. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that a mixed cognitive impairment subtype, and continuing cognitive impairment before and six months after cardiac surgery, is associated with long term mortality, independent of depression and common risk factors.International journal of cardiology 04/2013; · 7.08 Impact Factor