A dynamic view of depressive symptoms and neurocognitive change among patients with coronary artery disease.
ABSTRACT Older patients with coronary artery disease often experience depressive symptoms and are vulnerable to developing cognitive impairment. Whether depressive symptoms increase their risk of cognitive decline is unknown.
To examine the association between the stability of depressive symptoms and cognitive decline for 30 months among patients undergoing coronary angiography and to explore whether any observed associations were modified by the presence of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele.
Urban tertiary care hospital serving southern Alberta.
Three hundred fifty patients 60 years or older (73.7% male) undergoing nonemergent catheterization (October 27, 2003, through February 28, 2007) without prior revascularization. We compared a baseline measure of depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥5) with a dynamic measure capturing change from baseline to 12 months.
Mean change in domain (z scores for attention/executive function, learning/memory, and verbal fluency) and global (raw Mini-Mental State Examination) cognitive scores from baseline to 6, 12, and 30 months and from 12 to 30 months.
In adjusted models, participants with persistent depressive symptoms (at baseline and ≥1follow-up visit) showed significantly greater declines at 30 months in attention/executive function (mean z score change, -0.22), learning/memory (-0.19), verbal fluency (-0.18), and global cognition (mean Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score change, -0.99) compared with participants with no or baseline-only depressive symptoms. Persistent depressive symptoms were associated with significantly greater declines in all cognitive measures from 12 to 30 months after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. For global cognition, a significantly greater decline was evident for patients with persistent depressive symptoms and the APOE ε4 allele (mean MMSE score change, -2.93 [95% CI, -4.40 to -1.45]).
Depressive symptoms persist in some patients with coronary artery disease, placing them at a greater risk for cognitive decline. Whether this decline is additionally modified by the presence of APOE ε4 requires further investigation.
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ABSTRACT: There are conflicting reports regarding the association between coronary artery disease (CAD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Volumetric Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations have been considered as an objective biomarker for MCI. In this study, we determined the relationship between the regional brain volumes and the extent of CAD in MCI patients and cognitively normal controls. In a case-control study a subset of MCI patients (n = 20) and cognitively normal controls (n = 20), aged 66.4 ± 4.6 and 65.3 ± 3.9 respectively, from subjects who were recently admitted to cardiac catheterization facilities in two general hospitals were selected. All subjects underwent a clinical interview, biochemical measures, neuropsychological testing and Neuropsychiatry Unit COGnitive assessment tool. Video records of coronary angiography were scored with the Gensini method. For volumetric evaluation of regions of interest, brain MRI scans was processed using the FreeSurfer software package the relationship between the regional brain volumes and the extent of CAD in MCI patients and cognitively normal controls were compared. We have found that, there were significant differences between the two groups in volumes of left fusiform (P = 0.039), left pars triangularis (P = 0.003) and left superior temporal gyrus (P = 0.009), after controlling for intracranial volumes. Higher Gensini scores were associated with reduced volumes of total cortical volume (P = 0.047, R = -0.4), left precuneus (P = 0.022, R = -0.5), right inferior parietal lobule (P = 0.011, R = -0.5) and left supra marginal gyrus (P = 0.035, R = -0.04) in MCI. In MCI, a greater degree of coronary stenosis correlates with greater loss of gray matter in specific brain regions relevant to cognitive function. This, however, was not the case for cognitively normal subjects.Journal of research in medical sciences 08/2014; 19(8):739-745. · 0.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Optimism is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality, but its impact on recovery after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is poorly understood. We hypothesized that greater optimism would lead to more effective physical and emotional adaptation after ACS and would buffer the impact of persistent depressive symptoms on clinical outcomes. This prospective observational clinical study took place in an urban general hospital and involved 369 patients admitted with a documented ACS. Optimism was assessed with a standardized questionnaire. The main outcomes were physical health status, depressive symptoms, smoking, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption measured 12 months after ACS, and composite major adverse cardiac events (cardiovascular death, readmission with reinfarction or unstable angina, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery) assessed over an average of 45.7 months. We found that optimism predicted better physical health status 12 months after ACS independently of baseline physical health, age, sex, ethnicity, social deprivation, and clinical risk factors (B = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.10-1.20). Greater optimism also predicted reduced risk of depressive symptoms (odds ratio = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.74-0.90), more smoking cessation, and more fruit and vegetable consumption at 12 months. Persistent depressive symptoms 12 months after ACS predicted major adverse cardiac events over subsequent years (odds ratio = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.16-5.67), but only among individuals low in optimism (optimism × depression interaction; p = .014). Optimism predicts better physical and emotional health after ACS. Measuring optimism may help identify individuals at risk. Pessimistic outlooks can be modified, potentially leading to improved recovery after major cardiac events.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis and apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) are known risks for Dementia. We sought to evaluate the relationship between coronary atherosclerosis and APOE4 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a case-control study, subjects with age more than 60 years and recent coronary angiography were evaluated by mini-mental state examination and neuropsychiatry unit cognitive assessment tool (NUCOG) to find the patients with MCI (n = 40) and the controls with normal cognition (n = 40). Coronary angiography records were re-assessed to find the severity of coronary artery disease by the Gensini scores. Plasma levels of APOE4 were measured. There were no-significant difference between the 2 groups regarding the plasma APOE4 levels (P = 0.706) and the Gensini scores (P = 0.236). Associations between the Gensini scores and the NUCOG scores in the MCI group (r = -0.196, P = 0.225) and the control group (r = 0.189, P = 0.243) were not significant. However, the interaction effect between the Gensini and the NUCOG scores based on allocation to the control or the patient groups showed statistically significant difference (F(1,67) = 4.84, P = 0.031). Although atherosclerosis has been considered as known risk factor for dementia and MCI, this study could not reveal that coronary atherosclerosis-related to declining in cognitive functioning. There was no significant association between plasma APOE4 levels and MCI.09/2014; 10(5):244-251.