The Effect of Dynamic Femoroacetabular Impingement on Pubic Symphysis Motion A Cadaveric Study
ABSTRACT A link between femoroacetabular impingement and athletic pubalgia has been reported clinically. One proposed origin of athletic pubalgia is secondary to repetitive loading of the pubic symphysis, leading to instability and parasymphyseal tendon and ligament injury. Hypothesis/
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of simulated femoral-based femoroacetabular impingement on rotational motion at the pubic symphysis. The authors hypothesize that the presence of a cam lesion leads to increased relative symphyseal motion.
Controlled laboratory study.
Twelve hips from 6 fresh-frozen human cadaveric pelvises were used to simulate cam-type femoroacetabular impingement. The hips were held in a custom jig and maximally internally rotated at 90° of flexion and neutral adduction. Three-dimensional motion of the pubic symphysis was measured by a motion-tracking system for 2 states: native and simulated cam. Load-displacement plots were generated between the internal rotational torque applied to the hip and the responding motion in 3 anatomic planes of the pubic symphysis.
As the hip was internally rotated, the motion at the pubic symphysis increased proportionally with the degrees of the rotation as well as the applied torque measured at the distal femur for both states. The primary rotation of the symphysis was in the transverse plane and on average accounted for more than 60% of the total rotation. This primary motion caused the anterior aspect of the symphyseal joint to open or widen, whereas the posterior aspect narrowed. At the torque level of 18.0 N·m, the mean transverse rotation in degrees was 0.89° ± 0.35° for the native state and 1.20° ± 0.41° for cam state. The difference between cam and the native groups was statistically significant (P < .03).
Dynamic femoroacetabular impingement as caused by the presence of a cam lesion causes increased rotational motion at the pubic symphysis.
Repetitive loading of the symphysis by cam impingement is thought to lead to increased symphyseal motion, which is one possible precursor to athletic pubalgia.
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ABSTRACT: Sports hernia/athletic pubalgia has received increasing attention as a source of disability and time lost from athletics. Studies are limited, however, lacking consistent objective criteria for making the diagnosis and assessing outcomes. PubMed database through January 2013 and hand searches of the reference lists of pertinent articles. Review article. Level 5. Nonsurgical outcomes have not been well reported. Various surgical approaches have return-to-athletic activity rates of >80% regardless of the approach. The variety of procedures and lack of outcomes measures in these studies make it difficult to compare one surgical approach to another. There is increasing evidence that there is an association between range of motion-limiting hip disorders (femoroacetabular impingement) and sports hernia/athletic pubalgia in a subset of athletes. This has added increased complexity to the decision-making process regarding treatment. An association between femoroacetabular impingement and athletic pubalgia has been recognized, with better outcomes reported when both are managed concurrently or in a staged manner.Sports Health A Multidisciplinary Approach 03/2014; 6(2):139-44. DOI:10.1177/1941738114523557
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ABSTRACT: There are several reports on the association between pubalgia and intra-articular hip disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in athletes who underwent tenotomy due to long-standing groin pain. A secondary purpose was evaluating the frequency of femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) and its impact on the long-term outcome. Thirty-two high-level male athletes treated with adductor tenotomy, rectus abdominis tenotomy or both were included. At a median follow-up time of 6 years after the tenotomy, the subjects underwent standardised clinical examination, plain radiographs, completed web-based health-related patient-reported outcomes, including iHOT12, HAGOS (six subscales), EQ-5D (two subscales), HSAS for physical activity level and a VAS for overall hip function. Furthermore, patient satisfaction and return to sports were documented. Twenty-four of the 32 (75 %) athletes were satisfied with the outcome of the tenotomy, and 22 of the athletes (69 %) were able to return to their pre-injury sport. Before the long-term follow-up, two of these satisfied athletes had undergone repeat surgery (one hip arthroscopy due to FAI and one repeat tenotomy). Of the 24 satisfied athletes, eight (33 %) had a positive hip impingement test at the follow-up. Of the remaining eight athletes not satisfied with the outcome, only one returned to their pre-injury sport and three had undergone hip arthroscopy prior to follow-up. Five had positive hip impingement tests which was significantly more frequently than in the satisfied group (p = 0.008). The group with a positive hip impingement test reported significantly more pain and symptoms, more hip problems during sports and physical activity, as well as lower hip-related quality of life according to the HAGOS scores (p < 0.05), at follow-up. Tenotomy for pubalgia yielded a satisfactory long-term outcome, with three of four athletes being able to return to their pre-injury sport. The athletes that did not return to their pre-injury sport had higher frequency of positive hip impingement test and inferior functional outcome compared with the athletes that did return to their pre-injury sport. It is therefore recommended that the hip should be carefully evaluated for hip impingement before tenotomy is considered as treatment for athletes with pubalgia. Retrospective case series, Level IV.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 10/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00167-013-2738-y · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hip injuries occur commonly in the military. Assessment of the patient with hip pain requires a systematic approach incorporating elements of the history, examination, and imaging. Initial conservative treatment should focus on controlling inflammation and optimizing the biomechanics around the pelvis. Surgery may be indicated in refractory cases with documented intra-articular disorders. Correction of the skeletal deformity contributing to secondary hip damage is essential to ensure durable results. Hip arthroscopy has provided new diagnostic and treatment options and has a growing application in the management of hip injuries in the military population.Clinics in Sports Medicine 10/2014; 33(4). DOI:10.1016/j.csm.2014.06.013 · 2.58 Impact Factor