Utilizing Improvement Science Methods to Improve Physician Compliance With Proper Hand Hygiene
ABSTRACT In 2009, The Joint Commission challenged hospitals to reduce the risk of health care-associated infections through hand hygiene compliance. At our hospital, physicians had lower compliance rates than other health care workers, just 68% on general pediatric units. We used improvement methods and reliability science to increase compliance with proper hand hygiene to >95% by inpatient general pediatric teams.
Strategies to improve hand hygiene were tested through multiple plan-do-study-act cycles, first by 1 general inpatient medical team and then spread to 4 additional teams. At the start of each rotation, residents completed an educational module and posttest about proper hand hygiene. Team compliance data were displayed daily in the resident conference room. Real-time identification and mitigation of failures by a hand-washing champion encouraged shared accountability. Organizational support ensured access to adequate hand hygiene supplies. The main outcome measure was percent compliance with acceptable hand hygiene, defined as use of an alcohol-based product or hand-washing with soap and turning off the faucet without using fingers or palm. Compliance was defined as acceptable hand hygiene before and after contact with the patient or care environment. Covert bedside observers recorded at least 8 observations of physicians' compliance per day.
Physician compliance with proper hand hygiene improved to >95% within 6 months and was sustained for 11 months.
Instituting a hand-washing champion for immediate identification and mitigation of failures was key in sustaining results. Improving physician compliance with proper hand hygiene is achievable and a first step in decreasing health care-associated infections.
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ABSTRACT: Background Despite universal recognition of the importance of hand hygiene in reducing the incidence of healthcare associated infections, health care workers¿ compliance with best practice has been sub-optimal. Senior hospital managers have responsibilities for implementing patient safety initiatives and are therefore ideally placed to provide suggestions for improving strategies to increase hand hygiene compliance. This is an under-researched area, accordingly the aim of this study was to identify senior hospital managers¿ views on current and innovative strategies to improve hand hygiene compliance.Methods Qualitative design comprising face-to-face interviews with thirteen purposively sampled senior managers at a major teaching and referral hospital in Sydney, Australia. Data were analysed thematically.ResultsSeven themes emerged: culture change starts with leaders, refresh and renew the message, connect the five moments to the whole patient journey, actionable audit results, empower patients, reconceptualising non-compliance and start using the hammer.Conclusions To strengthen hand hygiene programmes, strategies based on the five moments of hand hygiene should be tailored to specific roles and settings and take into account the whole patient journey including patient interactions with clinical and non-clinical staff. Senior clinical and non-clinical leaders should visibly champion and mandate best practice initiatives and articulate that hand hygiene non-compliance is culturally and professionally unacceptable to the organization. Strategies that included a disciplinary component and which conceptualise hand hygiene non-compliance as a patient safety error may be worth evaluating in terms of staff acceptability and effectiveness.BMC Infectious Diseases 11/2014; 14(1):611. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-6695611611337601 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The World Health Organization (WHO) launched a multimodal strategy and campaign in 2009 to improve hand hygiene practices worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the implementation of the strategy in United States health care facilities. Methods From July through December 2011, US facilities participating in the WHO global campaign were invited to complete the Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework online, a validated tool based on the WHO multimodal strategy. Results Of 2,238 invited facilities, 168 participated in the survey (7.5%). A detailed analysis of 129, mainly nonteaching public facilities (80.6%), showed that most had an advanced or intermediate level of hand hygiene implementation progress (48.9% and 45.0%, respectively). The total Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework score was 36 points higher for facilities with staffing levels of infection preventionists > 0.75/100 beds than for those with lower ratios (P = .01) and 41 points higher for facilities participating in hand hygiene campaigns (P = .002). Conclusion Despite the low response rate, the survey results are unique and allow interesting reflections. Whereas the level of progress of most participating facilities was encouraging, this may reflect reporting bias, ie, better hospitals more likely to report. However, even in respondents, further improvement can be achieved, in particular by embedding hand hygiene in a stronger institutional safety climate and optimizing staffing levels dedicated to infection prevention. These results should encourage the launch of a coordinated national campaign and higher participation in the WHO global campaign.American journal of infection control 03/2014; 42(3):224–230. DOI:10.1016/j.ajic.2013.11.015 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A 2007 meta-analysis showed probiotics, specifically Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), shorten diarrhea from acute gastroenteritis (AGE) by 24 hours and decrease risk of progression beyond 7 days. In 2005, our institution published a guideline recommending consideration of probiotics for patients with AGE, but only 1% of inpatients with AGE were prescribed LGG. The objective of this study was to increase inpatient prescribing of LGG at admission to >90%, for children hospitalized with AGE, within 120 days. This quality improvement study included patients aged 2 months to 18 years admitted to general pediatrics with AGE with diarrhea. Diarrhea was defined as looser or ≥3 stools in the preceding 24 hours. Patients with complex medical conditions or with presumed bacterial gastroenteritis were excluded. Admitting and supervising clinicians were educated on the evidence. We ensured LGG was adequately stocked in our pharmacies and updated an AGE-specific computerized order set to include a default LGG order. Failure identification and mitigation were conducted via daily electronic chart review and e-mail communication. Primary outcome was the percentage of included patients prescribed LGG within 18 hours of admission. Intervention impact was assessed with run charts tracking our primary outcome over time. The prescribing rate increased to 100% within 6 weeks and has been sustained for 7 months. Keys to success were pharmacy collaboration, use of an electronic medical record for a standardized order set, and rapid identification and mitigation of failures. Rapid implementation of evidence-based practices is possible using improvement science methods.PEDIATRICS 03/2013; 131 Suppl 1:S96-S102. DOI:10.1542/peds.2012-1427l · 5.30 Impact Factor