In 2009, The Joint Commission challenged hospitals to reduce the risk of health care-associated infections through hand hygiene compliance. At our hospital, physicians had lower compliance rates than other health care workers, just 68% on general pediatric units. We used improvement methods and reliability science to increase compliance with proper hand hygiene to >95% by inpatient general pediatric teams.
Strategies to improve hand hygiene were tested through multiple plan-do-study-act cycles, first by 1 general inpatient medical team and then spread to 4 additional teams. At the start of each rotation, residents completed an educational module and posttest about proper hand hygiene. Team compliance data were displayed daily in the resident conference room. Real-time identification and mitigation of failures by a hand-washing champion encouraged shared accountability. Organizational support ensured access to adequate hand hygiene supplies. The main outcome measure was percent compliance with acceptable hand hygiene, defined as use of an alcohol-based product or hand-washing with soap and turning off the faucet without using fingers or palm. Compliance was defined as acceptable hand hygiene before and after contact with the patient or care environment. Covert bedside observers recorded at least 8 observations of physicians' compliance per day.
Physician compliance with proper hand hygiene improved to >95% within 6 months and was sustained for 11 months.
Instituting a hand-washing champion for immediate identification and mitigation of failures was key in sustaining results. Improving physician compliance with proper hand hygiene is achievable and a first step in decreasing health care-associated infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Patients benefit from early and intensive treatment in both acute ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack. Recent audits of acute stroke/transient ischaemic attack care suggest that although standards have improved, current services still fall short of optimal care. The aim of this study is to establish a database of patients accessing stroke services. Data will be collected and analysed to provide individualised feedback to healthcare professionals who can then use these findings to develop strategies for service improvement.
Methods and analysis
This longitudinal observational study will evolve with the ongoing findings from the research output. The project will consist of three phases: assessment of current practice, feedback of findings and evaluation of service change. Consecutive patients will be recruited from participating hospitals, and identifiable data will be collected to link records from the Primary Care, Secondary Care and Emergency Services. As this study focuses on observation of current practice, a sample size calculation is not deemed appropriate. Patients will be sent follow-up questionnaires examining quality of life at 3 and 12 months post-event. Qualitative interviews will examine the care pathway through the experiences of patients, their carers, healthcare personnel and commissioners. Collected data will be used in economic analyses, which will evaluate the impact of current care and service redesign on the NHS costs and patient outcomes (death and quality of life).
Ethics and dissemination
Ethical approval for this study has been obtained from the National Research Ethics Committee (reference; 09/H0716/71), and site-specific R&D approval has been acquired from the relevant NHS trusts. All findings will be presented at relevant healthcare/academic conferences and written up for publication in peer-reviewed journals. Results will be fed back to patients and participating trusts through a series of reports and presentations. These will be used to facilitate discussions about service redesign and implementation.
BMJ Open 05/2012; 2(3). DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001430 · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the knowledge that contaminated hands play an important role in the transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens, and that hand hygiene (HH) reduces the transmission of these organisms, healthcare worker's adherence with HH is poor.
To understand the common beliefs and attitudes held by paediatric residents about HH.
Qualitative study design.
Tertiary care paediatric hospital in Edmonton, Canada.
Semistructured interviews were conducted and themes were identified from interviews.
22 paediatric residents.
Paediatric residents self-reported their HH adherence at 70-99% and perceived hospital-wide adherence at 45-80%. Four major themes were identified during interviews including the importance of role modelling, balancing time spent on HH with other competing factors, self-protection as a driving factor for HH and cues as an important part of habit that stimulate HH.
Staff physicians were viewed as integral to initiating group HH events, but at times, the first person in the room acted as a role model for the rest of the group. In certain instances, such as a cardiac arrest, decreased adherence with HH was viewed as acceptable. Residents engaged in HH to protect their own health. Residents relied on personal cues, which they integrated into their own HH habit. Future HH adherence strategies should ensure that the physician training environments permit the formation of good attitudes and habits towards HH. There are no additional data available.
BMJ Open 10/2012; 2(6). DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002188 · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 2007 meta-analysis showed probiotics, specifically Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), shorten diarrhea from acute gastroenteritis (AGE) by 24 hours and decrease risk of progression beyond 7 days. In 2005, our institution published a guideline recommending consideration of probiotics for patients with AGE, but only 1% of inpatients with AGE were prescribed LGG. The objective of this study was to increase inpatient prescribing of LGG at admission to >90%, for children hospitalized with AGE, within 120 days.
This quality improvement study included patients aged 2 months to 18 years admitted to general pediatrics with AGE with diarrhea. Diarrhea was defined as looser or ≥3 stools in the preceding 24 hours. Patients with complex medical conditions or with presumed bacterial gastroenteritis were excluded. Admitting and supervising clinicians were educated on the evidence. We ensured LGG was adequately stocked in our pharmacies and updated an AGE-specific computerized order set to include a default LGG order. Failure identification and mitigation were conducted via daily electronic chart review and e-mail communication. Primary outcome was the percentage of included patients prescribed LGG within 18 hours of admission. Intervention impact was assessed with run charts tracking our primary outcome over time.
The prescribing rate increased to 100% within 6 weeks and has been sustained for 7 months.
Keys to success were pharmacy collaboration, use of an electronic medical record for a standardized order set, and rapid identification and mitigation of failures. Rapid implementation of evidence-based practices is possible using improvement science methods.
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