Short-segment Barrett's esophagus (SSBE) or long-segment Barrett's esophagus (LSBE) is the consequence of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which is frequently associated with obesity. Obesity is a significant risk factor for the development of GERD symptoms, erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Morbidly obese patients who submitted to gastric bypass have an incidence of GERD as high as 50% to 100% and Barrett's esophagus reaches up to 9% of patients.
In this prospective study, we evaluate the postoperative results after three different procedures--calibrated fundoplication + posterior gastropexy (CFPG), fundoplication + vagotomy + distal gastrectomy + Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy (FVDGRYGJ), and laparoscopic resectional Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRRYGBP)--among obese patients.
In patients with SSBE who submitted to CFPG, the persistence of reflux symptoms and endoscopic erosive esophagitis was observed in 15% and 20.2% of them, respectively. Patients with LSBE were submitted to FVDGRYGJ or LRRYGBP which significantly improved their symptoms and erosive esophagitis. No modifications of LESP were observed in patients who submitted to LRRYGBP before or after the operation. Acid reflux diminished after the three types of surgery were employed. Patients who submitted to LRRYGBP presented a significant reduction of BMI from 41.5 ± 4.3 to 25.7 ± 1.3 kg/m(2) after 12 months.
Among patients with LSBE, FVDGRYGJ presents very good results in terms of improving GERD and Barrett's esophagus, but the reduction of weight is limited. LRRYGBP improves GERD disease and Barrett's esophagus with proven reduction in body weight and BMI, thus becoming the procedure of choice for obese patients.
"Likewise, the gastric sleeve resection increases the prevalence of oesophagitis from 18% to 45%.71 The only bariatric procedure that reduces reflux and reflux symptoms is the gastric bypass procedure with Roux-en-Y reconstruction.72 Some practitioners go as far as to recommend this procedure for the treatment of GORD in morbidly obese patients. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The worldwide incidence of GORD and its complications is increasing along with the exponentially increasing problem of obesity. Of particular concern is the relationship between central adiposity and GORD complications, including oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Driven by progressive insight into the epidemiology and pathophysiology of GORD, the earlier belief that increased gastroesophageal reflux mainly results from one dominant mechanism has been replaced by acceptance that GORD is multifactorial. Instigating factors, such as obesity, age, genetics, pregnancy and trauma may all contribute to mechanical impairment of the oesophagogastric junction resulting in pathological reflux and accompanying syndromes. Progression of the disease by exacerbating and perpetuating factors such as obesity, neuromuscular dysfunction and oesophageal fibrosis ultimately lead to development of an overt hiatal hernia. The latter is now accepted as a central player, impacting on most mechanisms underlying gastroesophageal reflux (low sphincter pressure, transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation, oesophageal clearance and acid pocket position), explaining its association with more severe disease and mucosal damage. Since the introduction of proton pump inhibitors (PPI), clinical management of GORD has markedly changed, shifting the therapeutic challenge from mucosal healing to reduction of PPI-resistant symptoms. In parallel, it became clear that reflux symptoms may result from weakly acidic or non-acid reflux, insight that has triggered the search for new compounds or minimally invasive procedures to reduce all types of reflux. In summary, our view on GORD has evolved enormously compared to that of the past, and without doubt will impact on how to deal with GORD in the future.
Gut 03/2014; 91(1071). DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306393 · 14.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To analyze the effect of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to compare the results of LSG vs gastric bypass (GB) among patients with known GERD.Design, Setting, and Patients
We performed a retrospective review of the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2010, including inpatient and all outpatient follow-up data. We compared patients undergoing LSG with a concurrent cohort undergoing GB.Main Outcomes and Measures
Rates of improvement or worsening of GERD symptoms, development of new-onset GERD, and weight loss and complications.Results
A total of 4832 patients underwent LSG and 33 867 underwent GB, with preexisting GERD present in 44.5% of the LSG cohort and 50.4% of the GB cohort. Most LSG patients (84.1%) continued to have GERD symptoms postoperatively, with only 15.9% demonstrating GERD resolution. Of LSG patients who did not demonstrate preoperative GERD, 8.6% developed GERD postoperatively. In comparison, GB resolved GERD in most patients (62.8%) within 6 months postoperatively (P < .001). Among the LSG cohort, the presence of preoperative GERD was associated with increased postoperative complications (15.1% vs 10.6%), gastrointestinal adverse events (6.9% vs 3.6%), and increased need for revisional surgery (0.6% vs 0.3%) (all P < .05). The presence of GERD had no effect on weight loss for the GB cohort but was associated with decreased weight loss in the LSG group.Conclusions and Relevance
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy did not reliably relieve or improve GERD symptoms and induced GERD in some previously asymptomatic patients. Preoperative GERD was associated with worse outcomes and decreased weight loss with LSG and may represent a relative contraindication.
JAMA SURGERY 02/2014; 149(4). DOI:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.4323 · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is an effective treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, there is no consensus for the surgical treatment of GERD in morbidly obese patients.
Twenty-five morbidly obese patients with GERD underwent our novel procedure, laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with gastric plication (LNFGP), and were monitored for 6 to 18 months. Operative complication, weight loss, and GERD symptoms were monitored.
The study subjects consisted seven males and 18 females. The average age was 38.2 years (from 18 to 58), and the mean BMI was 37.9 kg/m(2) (from 31.5 to 56.4). The mean operative time was 145.6 min (from 105 to 190). All procedures were performed via laparoscopic surgery. Two patients (8 %) displayed a major 30-day perioperative complication. The first patient had an acute leak on the second postoperative day. The patient received a laparoscopic revision sleeve gastrectomy and was discharged 5 days later after an uneventful recovery. Another patient developed an intra-abdominal abscess 3 weeks after surgery and received laparoscopic drainage and a revision sleeve gastrectomy. Upon follow-up, only four (16 %) patients experienced occasional acid regurgitation symptoms; however, no anti-acid medication was required. A significant decrease in the prevalence of erosive esophagitis (80 vs. 17 %) after LNFGP was observed. The mean weight loss was 9.7, 14.1, 17.9, and 18.1 % at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. The mean BMI decreased to 30.8 kg/m(2) 1 year post surgery with a mean body weight loss of 25 kg.
LNFGP appears to be an acceptable treatment option for treating GERD in morbidly obese patients who refuse Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. However, further study is indicated to verify this novel procedure.
Obesity Surgery 03/2014; 24(9). DOI:10.1007/s11695-014-1223-0 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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