Pharmacokinetics, lymph node uptake, and mechanistic PK model of near-infrared dye-labeled bevacizumab after IV and SC administration in mice.
ABSTRACT Our objective was to determine the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and lymph node uptake of the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, labeled with the near-infrared (IR) dye 800CW, after intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) administration in mice. Fluorescence imaging and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays were developed and validated to measure the concentration of bevacizumab in plasma. The bevacizumab-IRDye conjugate remained predominantly intact in plasma and in lymph node homogenate samples over a 24-h period, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. The plasma concentration vs. time plots obtained by fluorescence and ELISA measurements were similar; however, unlike ELISA, fluorescent imaging was only able to quantitate concentrations for 24 h after administration. At a low dose of 0.45 mg/kg, the plasma clearance of bevacizumab was 6.96 mL/h/kg after IV administration; this clearance is higher than that reported after higher doses. Half-lives of bevacizumab after SC and IV administration were 4.6 and 3.9 days, respectively. After SC administration, bevacizumab-IRDye800CW was present in the axillary lymph nodes that drain the SC site; lymph node uptake of bevacizumab-IRDye 800CW was negligible after IV administration. Bevacizumab exhibited complete bioavailability after SC administration. Using a compartmental pharmacokinetic model, the fraction absorbed through the lymphatics after SC administration was estimated to be about 1%. This is the first report evaluating the use of fluorescent imaging to determine the pharmacokinetics, lymphatic uptake, and bioavailability of a near-infrared dye-labeled antibody conjugate.
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ABSTRACT: More than 20 monoclonal antibodies have been approved as therapeutic drugs by the US Food and Drug Administration, and it is quite likely that the number of approved antibodies will double in the next 7-10 years. Antibody drugs show several desirable characteristics, including good solubility and stability, long persistence in the body, high selectivity and specificity, and low risk for bioconversion to toxic metabolites. However, many antibody drugs demonstrate attributes that complicate drug development, including very poor oral bioavailability, incomplete absorption following intramuscular or subcutaneous administration, nonlinear distribution, and nonlinear elimination. In addition, antibody administration often leads to an endogenous antibody response, which may alter the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of the therapeutic antibody. Antibodies have been developed for a wide range of disease conditions, with effects produced through a complex array of mechanisms. This article attempts to provide a brief overview of the main determinants of antibody pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2008); 84, 5, 548-558 doi:10.1038/clpt.2008.170.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 10/2008; 84(5):548-58. · 6.04 Impact Factor