Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia by Second Trimester Maternal Serum Levels of Alpha-fetoprotein, Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin, and Unconjugated Estriol

Genetic Disease Screening Program, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA.
Pediatric Research (Impact Factor: 2.31). 04/2012; 71(4 Pt 1):399-406. DOI: 10.1038/pr.2011.73
Source: PubMed


Although maternal serum α-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonandotropin (hCG), and estriol play important roles in immunomodulation and immunoregulation during pregnancy, their relationship with the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in young infants is unknown despite BPD being associated with pre- and postnatal inflammatory factors.
We found that these serum biomarkers were associated with an increased risk of BPD. Risks were especially high when AFP and/or hCG levels were above the 95th percentile and/or when unconjugated estriol (uE3) levels were below the 5th percentile (relative risks (RRs) 3.1-6.7). Risks increased substantially when two or more biomarker risks were present (RRs 9.9-75.9).
Data suggested that pregnancies that had a biomarker risk and yielded an offspring with BPD were more likely to have other factors present that suggested early intrauterine fetal adaptation to stress, including maternal hypertension and asymmetric growth restriction.
The objective of this population-based study was to examine whether second-trimester levels of AFP, hCG, and uE3 were associated with an increased risk of BPD.

1 Follower
10 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a complex disorder secondary to gene-environment interactions, and is the commonest chronic lung disease in infancy. There is no specific or effective treatment available to date for BPD. Since the aetiopathogenesis of BPD is multifactorial, involving diverse molecular signaling pathways, a variety of biomarkers detected in biological fluids have been proposed for early identification of infants predisposed to BPD. This review will be restricted to biomarker studies in human infants, conducted mostly in the last decade. The majority of the studies have been conducted using blood, urine or tracheal aspirate samples. Despite the multitude of biomarkers proposed, most studies have been conducted in small numbers of infants, with few being replicated by independent investigators. Confirmatory studies with adequate sample sizes and assessment of the role of putative biomarkers in the aetiology of BPD in developmentally appropriate animal models and human lungs with BPD will enhance the potential for therapeutic interventions. Genomic and proteomic approaches have the greatest potential to significantly advance the field of biomarkers in BPD.
    Paediatric Respiratory Reviews 03/2013; 14(3). DOI:10.1016/j.prrv.2013.02.008 · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) increases the risk for developing pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the risk factors associated with BPD-associated PH remain unclear. Our primary aim was to determine perinatal risk factors associated with the development of PH in infants with BPD. Study Design We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 303 infants born at ≤ 28 weeks' gestation. Infants were categorized as having no, mild, moderate, or severe BPD. PH was diagnosed by echocardiogram. Data were analyzed using Fisher exact test, two-sample t-test, and multivariable logistic regression. Results The incidence of PH in our cohort was 12%. Infants with PH had lower birth weights and gestational ages (p < 0.001). After controlling for confounding variables, severe BPD (p < 0.001), and higher Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) scores (p = 0.04) were associated with the development of PH. Conclusion Severe BPD increases the risk for developing PH. Higher CRIB scores correlate with PH development in infants with BPD. We speculate that CRIB scores may allow for early categorization of preterm infants with a higher likelihood of developing PH.
    American Journal of Perinatology 09/2015; 32(11):1031-1037. DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1547324 · 1.91 Impact Factor


10 Reads
Available from