[Immunogenetic diagnosis of large granular lymphocytic leukemia and therapy by sirolimus].
ABSTRACT This study was aimed to investigate the immunogenetic diagnosis of large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGLL) and therapeutic efficacy of sirolimus, and to analysis 256 cases of LGLL reported at home and abroad within 2000 - 2010. Besides the routine examination of peripheral blood and classification of bone marrow cell morphology, the expression of T cell receptor variable region of β-chain (TCR BV), CD3, CD4 and CD8, as well as TCRαβ, TCRγδ were detected by flow cytometry; the RT-PCR was used to amplify and determine the TCR gene spectrotypes, and to analyzse the clonality of abnormal cells. Sirolimus was first given to patients who did not gain efficacy from common agents. The results showed that lymphocytosis happened in all LGLL patients, but patients from West countries always displayed neutropenia while Chinese patients always displayed anemia. In 2 out of 4 patients from our hospital, the large granular lymphocytes (LGL) were difficult to be distinguished. In all 4 patients, almost all lymphocytes were CD3(+), CD8(+), and TCRα/β(+). TCR BV 24 gene family clones showed monoclonal TRBV 23, TRBV 20, TRBV 13.6, and TRBV 13.6, respectively. FCM results were consistent with those of RT-PCR. When 4 patients had been given sirolimus (6 mg first dose, 2 mg once a day) for about 1 week, hemoglobin level and reticulocyte count increased significantly without any serious side effects. It is concluded that the detection of specific lymphocyte monoclonal TCR BV 24 gene family by FCM contributes to the diagnosis of LGLL. Sirolimus is an effective agent without serious side effect for LGLL patients, especially for patients who cannot tolerate common drugs.