Generation and exploration of new classes of antitubercular agents: The optimization of oxazolines, oxazoles, thiazolines, thiazoles to imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and isomeric 5,6-fused scaffolds.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46656, USA.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.82). 02/2012; 20(7):2214-20. DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2012.02.025
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Tuberculosis (TB) is a devastating disease resulting in a death every 20s. Thus, new drugs are urgently needed. Herein we report ten classes of compounds-oxazoline, oxazole, thiazoline, thiazole, pyrazole, pyridine, isoxazole, imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine, imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine and imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidine-which have good (micromolar) to excellent (sub-micromolar) antitubercular potency. The 5,6-fused heteroaromatic compounds were the most potent with MIC's as low as <0.195 μM (9 and 11). Overall, the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine class was determined to be most promising, with potency similar to isoniazid and PA-824 against replicating Mtb H(37)Rv, clinically relevant drug sensitive, multi- and extensively resistant Mtb strains as well as having good in vitro metabolic stability.

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    ABSTRACT: A set of fourteen imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxamides was synthesized and screened against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of twelve of these agents were ≤ 1 μM against replicating bacteria and five compounds (9, 12, 16, 17 and 18) had MIC values ≤ 0.006 μM. Compounds 13 and 18 were screened against a panel of MDR and XDR drug resistant clinical Mtb strains with the potency of 18 surpassing that of clinical candidate PA-824 by nearly 10 fold. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of compounds 13 and 18 were evaluated in male mice by oral (PO) and intravenous (IV) routes. These results indicate that readily synthesized imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxamides are an exciting new class of potent, selective anti-TB agents that merit additional development opportunities.
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis is a serious global health problem caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is an urgent need for discovery and development of new treatments, but this can only be accomplished through rapid and reproducible M. tuberculosis assays designed to identify potent inhibitors. We developed an automated 96-well assay utilizing a recombinant strain of M. tuberculosis expressing a far-red fluorescent reporter to determine the activity of novel compounds; this allowed us to measure growth by monitoring both optical density and fluorescence. We determined that optical density and fluorescence were correlated with cell number during logarithmic phase growth. Fluorescence was stably maintained without antibiotic selection over 5 days, during which time cells remained actively growing. We optimized parameters for the assay, with the final format being 5 days' growth in 96-well plates in the presence of 2% w/v DMSO. We confirmed reproducibility using rifampicin and other antibiotics. The dual detection method allows for a reproducible calculation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), at the same time detecting artefacts such as fluorescence quenching or compound precipitation. We used our assay to confirm anti-tubercular activity and establish the structure activity relationship (SAR) around the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxamides, a promising series of M. tuberculosis inhibitors.
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    ABSTRACT: Three classes of fused bipyridine heterocycles were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antimycobacterial activities. The method for preparation of fused bipyridine derivatives is straight and efficient. The primary antimycobacterial screening reveals that mono-indolizine mono-salts are displaying potency superior to the second-line antitubercular drugs Cycloserine and Pyrimethamine and, equal as the first line anti-TB Ethambutol. The data from Cycle-2 screening assay (MIC, MBC, LORA, intracellular (macrophage) drug screening, and MTT cell proliferation) confirm the promising anti-TB results from Cycle-1 for mono-indolizine mono-salts. These data indicate that mono-indolizine mono-salt 6d is a potent compound against both replicating and non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is active against both extracellular and intracellular organisms, has a bacteriostatic mechanism of action and has basically no toxicity. We see no influence concerning the anti-TB activity of the fused-pyridine substituents.
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