Suicide Incidence and Risk Factors in an Active Duty US Military Population
ABSTRACT The goal of this study was to investigate and identify risk factors for suicide among all active duty members of the US military during 2005 or 2007.
The study used a cross-sectional design and included the entire active duty military population. Study sample sizes were 2,064,183 for 2005 and 1,981,810 for 2007. Logistic regression models were used.
Suicide rates for all services increased during this period. Mental health diagnoses, mental health visits, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), sleep prescriptions, reduction in rank, enlisted rank, and separation or divorce were associated with suicides. Deployments to Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom were also associated with elevated odds ratios for all services in the 2007 population and for the Army in 2005.
Additional research needs to address the increasing rates of suicide in active duty personnel. This should include careful evaluation of suicide prevention programs and the possible increase in risk associated with SSRIs and other mental health drugs, as well as the possible impact of shorter deployments, age, mental health diagnoses, and relationship problems.
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- "The ADMPF and DMDC Contingency Tracking Systems were used to create a series of sociodemographic and Army career variables suggested by previous research (Bell et al. 2010; Black et al. 2011; Bachynski et al. 2012; Hyman et al. 2012) to predict suicide . The subset of these variables found to be significant in previous HADS analyses (Gilman et al. 2014) were included as control variables: age, sex, race–ethnicity , marital status, age at enlistment, Armed Forces Qualification Test scores at enlistment, number of years in service, Command (the major organizational subdivision of the Army), and current (in the personmonth ) deployment either in a combat zone or in direct support outside the combat zone of OEF/OIF. "
ABSTRACT: Civilian suicide rates vary by occupation in ways related to occupational stress exposure. Comparable military research finds suicide rates elevated in combat arms occupations. However, no research has evaluated variation in this pattern by deployment history, the indicator of occupation stress widely considered responsible for the recent rise in the military suicide rate. The joint associations of Army occupation and deployment history in predicting suicides were analysed in an administrative dataset for the 729 337 male enlisted Regular Army soldiers in the US Army between 2004 and 2009. There were 496 suicides over the study period (22.4/100 000 person-years). Only two occupational categories, both in combat arms, had significantly elevated suicide rates: infantrymen (37.2/100 000 person-years) and combat engineers (38.2/100 000 person-years). However, the suicide rates in these two categories were significantly lower when currently deployed (30.6/100 000 person-years) than never deployed or previously deployed (41.2-39.1/100 000 person-years), whereas the suicide rate of other soldiers was significantly higher when currently deployed and previously deployed (20.2-22.4/100 000 person-years) than never deployed (14.5/100 000 person-years), resulting in the adjusted suicide rate of infantrymen and combat engineers being most elevated when never deployed [odds ratio (OR) 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-4.1], less so when previously deployed (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.1), and not at all when currently deployed (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.8-1.8). Adjustment for a differential 'healthy warrior effect' cannot explain this variation in the relative suicide rates of never-deployed infantrymen and combat engineers by deployment status. Efforts are needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms underlying this interaction to guide preventive interventions for soldiers at high suicide risk.Psychological Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0033291715001294 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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- "Medical treatments are provided in relation to particular problems such as anxiety or unrest (Cukor et al., 2010). When no single treatment has been proven effective as 'a cure' for veterans with PTSD, the risk of suicide, drug and alcohol abuse increases (Hyman et al., 2012). "
ABSTRACT: Nature-assisted therapy (NAT) has become more common and recognized in both practice and research. The literature often describes how NAT gradually emerged in the UK and the US offering rehabilitation of soldiers suffering from traumatic experiences after active service in WW I and WW II. The main question of this review is to investigate what happened to this patient group? Consequently the aim is to systematically review: The literature; the evidence level; the health outcomes; and the transmissibility of the therapy programmes and results for practitioners. The review describes the development and status of practice and research concerning NAT for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The systematic review included a seven-step literature search. Relevant data sources were scrutinized in order to retrieve literature meeting the predefined inclusion criteria. Due to the limited amount of peer-reviewed literature, non-peer-reviewed literature was also included in the review. The final selection yielded eleven peer reviewed and nine non-peer-reviewed publications. Three can be characterized as RCT studies, while the remainder is qualitative case studies. Eight themes emerged from the systematic analysis of the qualitative case studies. This review found that a large amount of projects offering NAT to veterans suffering from PTSD exist in many parts of the world and they present no adverse negative results. Recommendations for future practice and research are posed.Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 04/2015; 14(2):438-445. DOI:10.1016/j.ufug.2015.03.009 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A meta-analysis of 25 epidemiological studies estimated the prevalence of recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) major depression (MD) among U.S. military personnel. Best estimates of recent prevalence (standard error) were 12.0% (1.2) among currently deployed, 13.1% (1.8) among previously deployed, and 5.7% (1.2) among never deployed. Consistent correlates of prevalence were being female, enlisted, young (ages 17-25), unmarried, and having less than a college education. Simulation of data from a national general population survey was used to estimate expected lifetime prevalence of MD among respondents with the sociodemographic profile and none of the enlistment exclusions of Army personnel. In this Simulated sample, 16.2% (3.1) of respondents had lifetime MD and 69.7% (8.5) of first onsets occurred before expected age of enlistment. Numerous methodological problems limit the results of the meta-analysis and simulation. The article closes with a discussion of recommendations for correcting these problems in future surveillance and operational stress studies.Military medicine 08/2012; 177(8 Suppl):47-59. DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-12-00103 · 0.77 Impact Factor