Article

Visualization by mass spectrometry of 2-dimensional changes in rat brain lipids, including N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines, during neonatal brain ischemia.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
The FASEB Journal (Impact Factor: 5.7). 03/2012; 26(6):2667-73. DOI: 10.1096/fj.11-201152
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Spatial synthesis of N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) and N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) during ischemia-reperfusion in neonatal rats has been investigated and compared to the spatial degradation of other phospholipids. Ischemia was induced in anesthetized Wistar P7 rat pups by left middle cerebral artery electrocoagulation combined with a transient and concomitant occlusion of both common carotid arteries. Pups were sacrificed after 24 and 48 h. Sham-treated animals were sacrificed after 48 h. The frozen brains were sliced and subjected to desorption electrospray ionization imaging mass spectrometry. There was a remarkable increase in the levels of many species of NAPEs in the whole injured area at both time points, and a clear but minor increase in selected NAEs. In the ischemic area, the sodium adducts of phosphatidylcholine and of lyso-phosphatidylcholine accumulated and the potassium adduct of phosphatidylcholine disappeared, indicating breakdown of the Na(+)/K(+) pump. Free fatty acids, e.g., arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, tended to be more abundant in the periphery than in the center of the ischemic area and showed different spatial distribution. NAPEs are synthesized in the whole ischemic area where the cells seem to be dead and other phospholipids are degraded. Free fatty acids can be found in the periphery of the ischemic area.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
90 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endocannabinoid-like compounds are structurally related to the true endocannabinoids but do not contain highly unsaturated fatty acids, and they do not bind the cannabinoid receptors. The classical endocannabinoid-like compounds include N-acylethanolamines and 2-monoacylglycerols, and their structural resemblance to the endocannabinoids makes them players in the endocannabinoid system, where they can interfere with the actions of the true endocannabinoids, because they in several cases engage the same synthesizing and degrading enzymes. In addition they have pharmacological actions of their own, which are particularly interesting in a nutritional and metabolic context. Exogenously supplied oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide, and linoleoylethanolamide have anorexic effects, and the endogenous formation of these N-acylethanolamines in the small intestine may serve an important role in regulating food intake, through signaling via PPARα and the vagus nerve to the brain appetite center. A chronic high-fat diet will decrease intestinal levels of these anorectic N-acylethanolamines and this may contribute to the hyperphagic effect of high-fat diet; 2-monoacylglycerols mediate endocrine responses in the small intestine; probably trough activation of GPR119 on enteroendocrine cells, and diet-derived 2-monoacylglycerols, for example, 2-oleoylglycerol and 2-palmitoylglycerol might be important for intestinal fat sensing. Whether these 2-monoacylglycerols have signaling functions in other tissues is unclear at present. © 2014 BioFactors, 2014
    BioFactors 02/2014; · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fatty acyl ethanolamides represent a class of endogenous bioactive lipid molecules and are generally referred to as N-acylethanolamines (NAEs). NAEs include palmitoylethanolamide (anti-inflammatory and analgesic substance), oleoylethanolamide (anorexic substance), and anandamide (endocannabinoid). The endogenous levels of NAEs are mainly regulated by enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and degradation. In mammalian tissues, the major biosynthetic pathway starts from glycerophospholipids and is composed of two enzyme reactions. The first step is N-acylation of ethanolamine phospholipids catalyzed by Ca(2+)-dependent N-acyltransferase and the second step is the release of NAEs from N-acylated ethanolamine phospholipids by N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE)-hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD). As for the degradation of NAEs, fatty acid amide hydrolase plays the central role. However, recent studies strongly suggest the involvement of other enzymes in the NAE metabolism. These enzymes include members of the HRAS-like suppressor family (also called phospholipase A/acyltransferase family), which were originally discovered as tumor suppressors but can function as Ca(2+)-independent NAPE-forming N-acyltransferases; multiple enzymes involved in the NAPE-PLD-independent multi-step pathways to generate NAE from NAPE, which came to light by the analysis of NAPE-PLD-deficient mice; and a lysosomal NAE-hydrolyzing acid amidase as a second NAE hydrolase. These newly recognized enzymes may become the targets for the development of new therapeutic drugs. Here, we focus on recent enzymological findings in this area.
    Pharmacological Research 04/2014; · 4.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two different approaches to direct imaging of plant material with desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry are presented and demonstrated on leaves and petals of Hypericum perforatum. The direct imaging approaches are in contrast to previous DESI imaging studies where indirect analysis via imprints were used in order to overcome the morphological barrier presented by the layer of cuticular waxes covering the surface of a leaf or a petal. In order to enable direct imaging of such plant materials, a new ternary solvent system is introduced, providing a higher and more stable signal from soft plant materials than the binary solvent systems typically used in DESI. With this ternary solvent system, it was possible to image a number of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), a significant class of metabolites located in the cuticle layer in leaves and petals, as well as other plant metabolites. In the case of the petals of H. perforatum, all common metabolites could be imaged directly using the ternary solvent, whereas in the case of leaves from the same plant, only some of the metabolites were accessible, even with the ternary solvent system. For these samples, the leaves could be imaged with direct DESI after chloroform had been used to remove most of the cuticle, thus exposing lower layers in the leaf structure. A number of considerations regarding selection of samples and instrumental parameters that must be made in direct DESI imaging of plant materials are discussed. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 08/2013; 348:15-22. · 2.14 Impact Factor