Effects of sazetidine-A, a selective α4β2* nicotinic receptor desensitizing agent, on body temperature regulation in mice and rats
ABSTRACT Nicotine-induced hypothermia is well established, but the nicotinic receptor actions underlying this effect are not clear. Nicotine causes activation and desensitization at a variety of nicotinic receptor subtypes. Sazetidine-A [6-(5(((S)-azetidine-2-yl)methoxy)pyridine-3-yl)hex-5-yn-1-ol] is a novel compound that potently and selectively desensitizes α4β2* nicotinic receptors. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of sazetidine-A, on core body temperature (Tc) in mice and rats. Sazetidine-A effects on Tc and the interactions of sazetidine-A with nicotine and selective nicotinic antagonists were investigated to determine the receptor actions underlying nicotine-induced hypothermia. Adult male mice were injected with different dose of nicotine (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg), sazetidine-A (0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg), a mixture of nicotine (0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) and sazetidine-A (0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg) or saline and Tc was monitored telemetrically. In another set of experiments, the interaction between sazetidine-A and dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE), an α4β2* nicotinic receptors antagonist, and methyllycaconitine (MLA), an α7 antagonist, was investigated. Tc of mice was monitored following DHβE (1, 3 and 6 mg/kg), a combination of DHβE (3mg/kg) and sazetidine-A (0.6 mg/kg), MLA (1.5, 3 or 6 mg/kg) or combination of MLA (6 mg/kg) and sazetidine (0.6 mg/kg) or saline. The acute effect of sazetidine-A (1, 3, and 6 mg/kg) on rats Tc was also studied. Acute sazetidine-A caused a pronounced and long-lasting hypothermia in mice; Tc decreased to about 28°C at 100 min and recovered within 230 min. The hypothermic effect of sazetidine in rats was much less in magnitude (about 3°C) and shorter in duration compared with that in mice. Nicotine co-administration with low doses of sazetidine potentiated the magnitude and duration of hypothermia in mice. The α4β2* nicotinic receptors antagonist DHβE significantly prolonged sazetidine-A-induced hypothermia but did not increase its depth. The α7 antagonist MLA caused a modest degree of hypothermia with relatively short duration in mice. MLA failed to counteract the sazetidine-A-induced hypothermia. Overall, our results show that pharmacological modulation of α4β2* nicotinic receptors elicits changes in body temperature that may involve desensitization of these receptors.
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ABSTRACT: L-dopa-induced dyskinesias are a serious long-term side effect of dopamine replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease for which there are few treatment options. Our previous studies showed that nicotine decreased L-dopa-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs). Subsequent work with knockout mice demonstrated that α6β2* nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) play a key role. The present experiments were done to determine if α4β2* nAChRs are also involved in L-dopa-induced dyskinesias. To approach this, we took advantage of the finding that α6β2* nAChRs are predominantly present on striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals, while a significant population of α4β2* nAChRs are located on other neurons. Thus, a severe dopaminergic lesion would cause a major loss in α6β2*, but not α4β2* nAChRs. Experiments were therefore done in which rats were unilaterally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine, at a dose that lead to severe nigrostriatal damage. The dopamine transporter, a dopamine nerve terminal marker, was decreased by >99%. This lesion also decreased striatal α6β2* nAChRs by 97%, while α4β2* nAChRs were reduced by only 12% compared to control. A series of β2* nAChR compounds, including TC-2696, TI-10165, TC-8831, TC-10600 and sazetidine reduced L-dopa-induced AIMs in these rats by 23-32%. TC-2696, TI-10165, TC-8831 were also tested for parkinsonism, with no effect on this behavior. Tolerance did not develop with up to 3 months of treatment. Since α4α5β2 nAChRs are also predominantly on striatal dopamine terminals, these data suggest that drugs targeting α4β2 nAChRs may reduce L-dopa-induced dyskinesias in late stage Parkinson's disease.Neuropharmacology 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.03.038 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nicotine elicits hypothermic responses in rodents. This effect appears to be related to nicotinic receptor desensitization because sazetidine-A, an α4β2 nicotinic receptor desensitizing agent, produces marked hypothermia and potentiates nicotine-induced hypothermia in mice. To determine the specificity of sazetidine-A induced hypothermia to β2 subunit-containing nicotinic receptors, we tested its efficacy in β2 knockout (β2(-/-)) mice. These effects were compared with wildtype (WT) and α7 knockout (α7(-/-)) mice. Confirming our earlier results, sazetidine-A elicited a pronounced and long-lasting hypothermia in WT mice. In comparison, sazetidine-A induced a much attenuated and shorter hypothermic response in β2(-/-) mice. This indicates that the greater proportion of sazetidine-A induced hypothermia is mediated via actions on β2-containing nicotinic receptors, while a smaller component of hypothermia induced by sazetidine-A is mediated by non-β2 nicotinic receptors. Similar to WT mice, α7(-/-) mice showed the full extent of the sazetidine-A effect, suggesting that the hypothermia produced by sazetidine-A did not depend on actions on α7 nicotinic receptor subtype. Three other novel nicotinic receptor desensitizing agents derived from sazetidine-A, triazetidine-O, VMY-2-95 and YL-1-127 also produced hypothermia in WT and α7(-/-) mice. Furthermore, unlike sazetidine-A, triazetidine-O and YL-1-127 did not show any hint of a hypothermic effect in β2(-/-) mice. VMY-2-95 like sazetidine-A did show a residual hypothermic effect in the β2(-/-) mice. These studies show that the hypothermic effects of sazetidine-A and the related compound VMY-2-95 are mainly mediated by nicotinic receptors containing β2 subunit, but that a small component of the effect is apparently mediated by non-β2 containing receptors.European journal of pharmacology 09/2013; 718(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.08.037 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anesthetics such as isoflurane are commonly used to sedate experimental animals during the induction of stroke. Since these agents are known to modulate synaptic excitability, inflammation and blood flow, they could hinder the development and discovery of new neuroprotection therapies. To address this issue, we developed a protocol for inducing photothrombotic occlusion of cerebral vessels in fully conscious mice and tested two potential neuroprotectant drugs (a GluN2B or α4β2 nicotinic receptor antagonist). Our data show in vehicle treated mice that just 20 min of exposure to isoflurane during stroke induction can significantly reduce ischemic cortical damage relative to mice that were awake during stroke. When comparing potential stroke therapies, none provided any level of neuroprotection if the stroke was induced with anesthesia. However, if mice were fully conscious during stroke, the α4β2 nicotinic receptor antagonist reduced ischemic damage by 23% relative to vehicle treated controls, whereas the GluN2B antagonist had no significant effect. These results suggest that isoflurane anesthesia can occlude the benefits of certain stroke treatments and warrant caution when using anesthetics for pre-clinical testing of neuroprotective agents.Frontiers in Neuroenergetics 04/2014; 6:1. DOI:10.3389/fnene.2014.00001