To assess the association between drinking patterns and mortality, and cardiovascular disease in a large cohort of young- and middle-aged men and to assess whether the net balance of harm and protective effect implies protective effect or not.
Information from health examinations, psychological assessments and alcohol use background in a nationally representative birth cohort of 49,411 male military conscripts aged 18-20 years in 1969/1970, were linked to mortality and hospitalization data through 2004. Cox regression analyses were conducted and attributable proportions (APs) calculated. Confounders (baseline social status, intelligence, personality and smoking) were taken into account.
Increasing alcohol use was associated with increasing mortality (2614 deceased) and with decreasing risk for myocardial infarction (MI). The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.82] with a consumption corresponding to 30 g 100% ethanol/day or more in multivariate analysis. The risk for non-fatal MI was significantly reduced at 60 g 100% ethanol/day (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.90), not reduced for fatal MI, and non-significantly reduced for total MI. There was a marked association between alcohol use at conscription and mortality and hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnosis. APs indicate that alcohol caused 420 deaths, 61 cases of non-fatal stroke and protected from 154 cases on non-fatal MI.
Many more deaths were caused by alcohol than cases of non-fatal MI prevented. From a strict health perspective, we find no support for alcohol use in men below 55 years.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For several decades, there has been increasing interest in the possible use of resveratrol as a preventative agent in cardiovascular disease. Resveratrol exerts numerous effects on adipocyte, hepatocyte, and endothelial cell development and function. Many investigations have demonstrated the ability of resveratrol to regulate the adipocyte lifecycle, lipid synthesis, and improve hepatic lipid metabolism. Resveratrol has numerous vascular protective effects on endothelial tissue, including its antiplatelet activity. Resveratrol also reduces intracellular oxidative stress. Animal models of obesity and cardiovascular diseases have yielded important contributions to our understanding of the effects of resveratrol on the vasculature and the risk for pathology. In limited human studies, resveratrol reduces the release of proinflammatory cytokines and improves systemic glucose and insulin regulation and decreases cellular oxidative stress. Therefore, resveratrol has significant potential as both a prophylactic and treatment agent. However additional studies are required to more completely characterize its impacts on human physiology and its benefits in the setting of disease.
Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports 02/2013; 7(1). DOI:10.1007/s12170-012-0289-2
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