Clinical and radiological findings in Pallister-Killian syndrome
ABSTRACT Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a potentially lethal disorder with facial dysmorphism, pigmentary skin anomalies, developmental delay and major visceral anomalies, such as diaphragmatic hernia, anorectal malformation, and congenital heart disease. PKS is causally associated with mosaic tetrasomy of chromosome 12p. A routine chromosome analysis in peripheral lymphocytes usually fails to detect the mosaic state. A prompt diagnosis rests on clinical awareness and a subsequent chromosome or molecular analysis in fibroblasts, buccal mucosal cells, or bone marrow cells. We report here on three infants with PKS. One infant had aortic dilatation, a previously unreported association in PKS. More importantly, all infants showed a recognizable, though mild, pattern of skeletal changes mainly affecting axial bones, including delayed ossification of the vertebral bodies and pubic bones, flared anterior ribs, and broad metaphyses of the long bones, particularly of the femora. These skeletal changes should be considered as a useful diagnostic sign in PKS. Awareness of the axial skeletal alterations can be helpful in prompting clinicians to search for mosaic tetrasomy 12p and perform chromosomal analysis in appropriate tissue types.
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ABSTRACT: Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS), a rare disorder, is characterized by tissue-limited or tissue-specific mosaicism. The characteristic chromosome abnormality associated with PKS is i(12p), which is seen predominantly in skin fibroblast cultures. Diagnosis of i(12p) has been carried out on buccal smears before and was shown to be an easy and feasible method. All previously published studies used alpha-satellite probes for the diagnosis and as such have several pitfalls. Our approach, using dual-color, locus-specific probes, has high specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of i(12p). Using statistical analysis, we have also confirmed that the signal pattern in interphase nuclei is consistent with isochromosome 12p.Genetic Testing 02/2003; 7(3):219-23. DOI:10.1089/109065703322537232 · 1.65 Impact Factor
- American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 06/2013; 161A(6). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.35866 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a sporadic multisystem genetic diagnosis characterized by facial dysmorphia, variable developmental delay and intellectual impairment, hypotonia, hearing loss, seizures, differences in skin pigmentation, temporal alopecia, diaphragmatic hernia, congenital heart defects, and other systemic abnormalities. Although congenital heart defects have been described in association with PKS, the full spectrum of heart disease is still not entirely known. Here, we describe the pattern of cardiac findings of 81 probands with PKS who have had at least one cardiac evaluation, demonstrating structural heart difference in 37% of our cohort (n = 30). Septal defects such as atrial or ventricular septal defects (n = 12) were the most commonly seen congenital heart differences. Additional findings included the occasional occurrence of bicuspid aortic valve, aortic dilatation, and cardiac hypertrophy/cardiomyopathy. We suggest cardiac evaluation for all individuals with PKS at the time of diagnosis as well as subsequent longitudinal follow-up to monitor for the development of cardiomyopathy and aortic dilatation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 05/2014; 164(5). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.36413 · 2.05 Impact Factor