This review details recent advances in the fields of immunosensors and closely related immunoassays in the past decade, together with a discussion of possible future trends. Immunosensors can be classified by the way in which they transduce the signal produced upon the formation of an antibody antigen complex. Recent advancements to these methods of detection and transduction are discussed in detail, with particular focus on electrochemical, optical, piezoelectric and magnetic based sensors. The varying applications of these sensors are also discussed. Some of the most significant advances include development of immunosensors for the continuous monitoring of analytes, point of care (PoC) devices, with lower unit costs, automation, reusability and ease of use. Immunosensor technology has advanced at a prolific rate since its conception and has grown into a diverse area of ongoing research.
"This emitted light can be detected using a Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT). A review by Dodeigne et al. (2000) and Zhang et al. (2005) has shown that chemiluminescence is an emerging tool for diagnostics with extremely high sensitivity along with simple instrumentation, fast dynamic response properties, and a wide calibration range, and has been widely applied and embraced for immunosensing and nucleic acid hybridization (Atias et al., 2009; Ding et al., 2008; Holford et al., 2012; Guo et al., 2013). Similarly, a number of papers have shown chemiluminescence applications in use in clinical, pharmaceutical, environmental and food analysis (Kricka, 2003; Gámiz-Gracia et al., 2009; Lara et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to detect pathogenic and physiologically relevant molecules in the body with high 22 sensitivity and specificity offers a powerful opportunity in early diagnosis and treatment of 23 diseases. Early detection and diagnosis can be used to greatly reduce the cost of patient care 24 associated with advanced stages of many diseases. However, despite their widespread clinical 25 use, these techniques have a number of potential limitations. For example, a number of 26 diagnostic devices have slow response times and are burdensome to patients. Furthermore, 27 these assays are expensive and cost the health care industry billions of dollars every year. 28 Therefore, there is a need to develop more efficient and reliable sensing and detection 29 technologies. A biosensor is commonly defined as an analytical device that uses a biological 30
"Several antibody-based immunoassays and immunosensors have been generated with a view to future applications –. Antibody-based sensors permit rapid and sensitive analyses for a wide range of biomolecules, including pathogens and associated toxins . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Discrimination of closely related strains is a key issue, particularly for infectious diseases whose incidence fluctuates according to variations in the season and evolutionary changes. Among infectious diseases, influenza viral infections are a worldwide cause of pandemic disease and mortality. With the emergence of different influenza strains, it is vital to develop a method using antibodies that can differentiate between viral types and subtypes. Ideally, such a system would also be user friendly. In this study, a polyclonal antibody generated against A/Udorn/307/1972 (H3N2) was used as a probe to distinguish between influenza H3N2 viruses based on the interaction between the antibody and hemagglutinin, demonstrating its applicability for viral discrimination. Clear discrimination was demonstrated using an evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensor, which has appealing characteristics over other methods in the viewpoint of improving the sensitivity, measurement time, portability and usability. Further supporting evidence was obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, hemagglutination-inhibition assays, and infectivity neutralization assays. The results obtained indicate that the polyclonal antibody used here is a potential probe for distinguishing influenza viruses and, with the aid of a handheld sensor it could be used for influenza surveillance.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81396. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081396 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"However the price of such systems is typically too high to enable their use as a point of decision screening tool. In addition at present tests that are tailored to be specific to a certain pathology are limited . Optical fiber based SPR biosensors have been demonstrated in different configurations, and although to date they have not reached the sensitivities and detection limits achieved by SPR devices that use the standard Kretschmann configuration, they offers some advantages including the possibility of realizing dip sensors, the degree of miniaturization achievable  and Fig. 1. (A) Representation of the radiative SPR multiplexed architecture. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The simultaneous detection of multiple biological analytes is achieved for the first time using a single optical fiber based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. This is achieved by collecting the plasmonic wave re-scattered by a rough metallic coating deposited onto two separate sections (sensing regions) of a single multimode optical fiber. The results obtained showed that two gastric cancer biomarkers (apolipoprotein E and clusterin) are detected in clinically relevant concentrations each on a separate sensing region, simultaneously, something that cannot be done in traditional fiber based SPR biosensors that read the transmitted or reflected light to monitor the position of the resonance. While this multiplexing demonstration has been performed with two different biomarkers, it paves the way for the multiplexed detection of a larger number of biomarkers using a simple fiber optic based SPR sensor for point of decision diagnostics.
Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 07/2013; 5:454-458. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2013.03.131 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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