Article

High-risk prostate cancer: from definition to contemporary management.

Department of Urology, Klinikum der Universität München-Campus Großhadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany.
European Urology (Impact Factor: 10.48). 02/2012; 61(6):1096-106. DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2012.02.031
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT High-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is a potentially lethal disease. It is clinically important to identify patients with high-risk PCa early on because they stand to benefit the most from curative therapy. Because of recent advances in PCa management, a multimodal approach may be advantageous.
Define high-risk PCa, and identify the best diagnostic and treatment patterns for patients with clinically localized and locally advanced disease. A critical analysis of published results following monomodal and/or multimodal therapy for high-risk PCa patients was also performed.
A review of the literature was performed using the Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases as well as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
High-risk PCa accounts for ≤ 15% of all new diagnoses. Compared with patients with low- and intermediate-risk PCa, patients with high-risk PCa are at increased risk of treatment failure. Unfortunately, no contemporary randomized controlled trials comparing different treatment modalities exist. Evaluation of the results published to date shows that no single treatment can be universally recommended. Most often, a multimodal approach is warranted to optimize patient outcomes.
A significant minority of patients continue to present with high-risk PCa, which remains lethal in some cases. Outcomes following treatment of men with high-risk tumors have not substantially improved over time. However, not all high-risk patients are at the same risk of PCa progression and death. At present, a multimodal approach seems the best way to achieve acceptable outcomes for high-risk PCa patients.

0 0
 · 
0 Bookmarks
 · 
55 Views
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The optimal management of high-risk prostate cancer remains uncertain. In this study we assessed the safety and efficacy of a novel multimodal treatment paradigm for high-risk prostate cancer. This was a prospective phase II trial including 35 patients with newly diagnosed high-risk localized or locally advanced prostate cancer treated with high-dose intensity-modulated radiation therapy preceded or not by radical prostatectomy, concurrent intensified-dose docetaxel-based chemotherapy and long-term androgen deprivation therapy. Primary endpoint was acute and late toxicity evaluated with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Secondary endpoint was biochemical and clinical recurrence-free survival explored with the Kaplan-Meier method. Acute gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary toxicity was grade 2 in 23% and 20% of patients, and grade 3 in 9% and 3% of patients, respectively. Acute blood/bone marrow toxicity was grade 2 in 20% of patients. No acute grade >=4 toxicity was observed. Late gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary toxicity was grade 2 in 9% of patients each. No late grade >=3 toxicity was observed. Median follow-up was 63 months (interquartile range 31-79). Actuarial 5-year biochemical and clinical recurrence-free survival rate was 55% (95% confidence interval, 35-75%) and 70% (95% confidence interval, 52-88%), respectively. In our phase II trial testing a novel multimodal treatment paradigm for high-risk prostate cancer, toxicity was acceptably low and mid-term oncological outcome was good. This treatment paradigm, thus, may warrant further evaluation in phase III randomized trials.
    Radiation Oncology 01/2014; 9(1):24. · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) is the standard for local prostate cancer (PCa) staging. Whole-body MRI (wbMRI) has shown capabilities for metastatic screening. This study assesses the feasibility and value of an all-in-one AJCC TNM staging of PCa during a unique MRI session combining mpMRI and wbMRI. Thirty consecutive patients with "high-risk" PCa prospectively underwent mpMRI of the prostate and wbMRI, in addition to (99m) Tc bone scan (BS), completed with standard X-rays (±TXR) and contrast enhanced CT for distant staging. For the statistical analysis, a "best valuable comparator" (BVC) combining a panel review of all available baseline and follow-up imaging, biological, and clinical data was used to adjudicate lymph node and bone metastatic status. Prostate mpMRI was analyzed using ESUR guidelines. Sensitivity of BS ± TXR combined with CT and of wbMRI for detecting metastases (bones or nodes) was 85% and 100%, respectively, and specificity was 88% and 100%, respectively. For the overall staging of the patients as being either N0M0 or having disease extension beyond the prostate, wbMRI was superior to the combination of BS and CT (improvement in all ROC characteristics and of AUC by 13.6% (95% CI: +0.7% to +26.5%, P = 0.039)). The main limitation is the limited number of patients. AJCC M and N staging using wbMRI is feasible during the same imaging session as mpMRI performed for T staging, in less then one hour. wbMRI outperforms BS ± TXR and abdomino-pelvic CT work up for discriminating subsets of patients with or without distant spread of the cancer. Prostate © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 12/2013; · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is now a well-established standard of care in combination with definitive radiotherapy for patients with unfavorable intermediate-risk to high-risk locally advanced prostate cancer. It is also well established that combination modality treatment with ADT and radiotherapy is superior to either of these modalities alone for the treatment of patients with high-risk locally advanced disease. Current treatment guidelines for prostate cancer in the United States are based on the estimated risk of recurrence and death. This review examines the clinical evidence underpinning the use of ADT and radiotherapy among patients with high-risk localized and locally advanced disease in the United States. This review also considers the rationale for moving from traditional luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists to more recently developed gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 03/2014; · 5.20 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
0 Downloads
Available from

Patrick J Bastian