Occupational injury in America: An analysis of risk factors using data from the General Social Survey (GSS).
ABSTRACT Although much is known about the distribution of occupational injury in terms of various job and employment factors, considerably less is known about other possible risk factors, particularly those involving psychosocial and organizational factors. These factors have not been emphasized in most injury surveillance systems or large scale, population based surveys.
In this study, data from the 2002 General Social Survey (GSS) and NIOSH Quality of Work Life (QWL) module were used to examine the risk of occupational injury in terms of socio-demographic factors, employment characteristics, and organizational factors.
The most informative results were obtained from Poisson regression analyses, which identified race, occupational category, and work-family interference as risk factors, and safety climate and organizational effectiveness as protective factors for occupational injury. These results provide guidance for targeting interventions and protective measures to curtail occupational injury in the United States.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyse the association between job stress and occupational injuries. METHODS: A prospective cohort study in a sample of 10 667 workers belonging to the insured population of the Mutual Insurance Company in Spain. Job stress was assessed with the Spanish version of the Job Stress Survey. A 1-year follow-up of the workers' clinical records was conducted to determine the incidence of occupational injuries, and the incidence rate per 1000 workers-year was calculated. The associations between the incidence of occupational injuries, job stress and job stress components (job pressure (JP) and lack of organisational support (LOS)) were assessed calculating the rate ratio (RR) and its CI of 95% using Poisson regression models. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, a significant association between LOS and increased incidence of occupational injuries was found. Such an association was observed for the LOS index (RRa=3.11, 95% CI 1.53 to 6.31), LOS severity (RRa=2.64, 95% CI 1.31 to 5.33) and LOS frequency (RRa=2.67, 95% CI 1.32 to 5.38) scales in women. There was no significant association between job stress or its components and the incidence of occupational injuries among men. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study found evidence of an association between the LOS and the incidence of occupational injuries in women, with potential implications for the prevention of accidents at work.Occupational and environmental medicine 05/2013; · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Scandinavian countries such as Sweden implemented the occupational health and safety (OHS) measures in the European Directive 89/391/EEC earlier than other European counties, including Spain. In fact, statistics on workplace accident rates reveal that between 2004 and 2009, there were considerably fewer accidents in Sweden than in Spain. The objective of the research described in this paper was to reduce workplace accidents and to improve OHS management in Spain by exploring the OHS practices in Sweden. For this purpose, an exploratory comparative study was conducted, which focused on the effectiveness of the EU directive in both countries. The study included a cross-sectional analysis of workplace accident rates and other contextual indicators in both national contexts. A case study of 14 Swedish and Spanish companies identified 14 differences in the preventive practices implemented. These differences were then assessed with a Delphi study to evaluate their contribution to the reduction of workplace accidents and their potential for improving health and safety management in Spain. The results showed that there was agreement concerning 12 of the 14 practices. Finally, we discuss opportunities of improvement in Spanish companies so that they can make their risk management practices more effective. The findings of this comparative study on the implementation of the European Directive 89/391/EEC in both Sweden and Spain have revealed health and safety managerial practices which, if properly implemented, could contribute to improved work conditions and accident statistics of Spanish companies. In particular, the results suggest that Spanish employers, safety managers, external prevention services, safety deputies and Labour Inspectorates should consider implementing streamlined internal preventive management, promoting the integration of prevention responsibilities to the chain of command, and preventing health and safety management from becoming a mere exchange of documents. The authors also encourage future research studies to use the methodology presented to compare and assess the European Directive 89/391/EEC implementation in other European countries.Journal of safety research 12/2013; 47:57-65. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Workplace and contextual factors that may affect risk for worker injury are not well described. This study used results from an employee job satisfaction survey to construct aggregate indicators of the work environment and estimate the relative contribution of those factors to injury rates in a manufacturing cohort. Principal components analysis was used to construct four plant-level factors from responses to a 32 question survey of the entire workforce, administered in 2006. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to evaluate the relationship between injury rate, individual-level and plant-level risk factors, unionisation and plant type. Plant-level 'work stress' (incident rate ratio (IRR)=0.50, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.90) was significant in the multilevel model, indicating the rate of injury for an average individual in that plant was halved (conditional on plant) when job stress decreased by a tertile. 'Overall satisfaction', 'work environment' and 'perception of supervisor' showed the same trend but were not significant. Unionisation was protective (IRR=0.40, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.95) as was any plant type compared with smelter. We demonstrated utility of data from a human resources survey to construct indicators of the work environment. Our research suggests that aspects of the work environment, particularly work stress and unionisation, may have a significant effect on risk for occupational injury, emphasising the need for further multilevel studies. Our work would suggest monitoring of employee perceptions of job stress and the possible inclusion of stress management as a component of risk reduction programmes.Occupational and environmental medicine 04/2014; · 3.64 Impact Factor