Cardiovascular disease in children with chronic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT More than a decade ago, cardiovascular disease (CVD) was recognized as a major cause of death in children with advanced CKD. This observation has sparked the publication of multiple studies assessing cardiovascular risk, mechanisms of disease, and early markers of CVD in this population. Similar to adults, children with CKD have an extremely high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related CVD risk factors. Early markers of cardiomyopathy, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction, and early markers of atherosclerosis, such as increased carotid artery intima-media thickness, carotid arterial wall stiffness, and coronary artery calcification, are frequently present in these children, especially those on maintenance dialysis. As a population without preexisting symptomatic cardiac disease, children with CKD potentially receive significant benefit from aggressive attempts to prevent and treat CVD. Early CKD, before needing dialysis, is the optimal time to both identify modifiable risk factors and intervene in an effort to avert future CVD. Slowing the progression of CKD, avoiding long-term dialysis and, if possible, conducting preemptive transplantation may represent the best strategies to decrease the risk of premature cardiac disease and death in children with CKD.
Article: Nocturnal intermittent hemodialysis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Preemptive renal transplantation is the method of choice for end stage renal disease in childhood and adolescence. However, without preemptive transplantation, waiting time for kidney transplantation might exceed several years. The poor quality of life and the extremely high morbidity and mortality rates of dialysis patients have led to the development of intensified hemodialysis programs in which the modes of dialysis (short daily, nocturnal intermittent or daily nocturnal) are different. Such programs have been shown to significantly improve several uremia-associated parameters, such as blood pressure, phosphate control, anemia and growth retardation, in both adult and pediatric (children and adolescents) patients and lead to a reduction in medications, including phosphate binders, erythropoietin and antihypertensive agents. Fluid limitations and dietary restrictions can also be lifted. With respect to psychosocial rehabilitation and quality of life, nocturnal intermittent dialysis programs provide a reasonable compromise of all forms of intensified programs. Experiences and practical approaches of our own in-center nocturnal intermittent hemodialysis program in the light of the recent publications are described in this review.Pediatric Nephrology 08/2014; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular burden of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in children has recently received more attention, and some authors have recommended that the origins of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality be found in childhood. In this comprehensive review of the literature, we aim to review the main and most recent studies evaluating cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric kidney disease patients. The literature suggests that ESRD, even in the pediatric population, is associated with a high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and needs serious attention. Unfortunately, there is extreme scarcity of data on the efficacy of preventive strategies on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients with renal disease. Therefore, authors of the current article recommend future studies to be directed to find beneficial and/or potential harmful effects of different interventions conventionally used in this population, including lifestyle modifications and pharmaceutical therapy on cardiovascular indices. Moreover, the effects of these drugs on the renal function of children with minimal kidney disease should be evaluated.ARYA atherosclerosis. 03/2014; 10(2):118-128.
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ABSTRACT: Poor linear growth is a frequent complication of CKD. This study evaluated the effect of kidney transplantation on age-related growth of linear body segments in pediatric renal transplant recipients who were enrolled from May 1998 until August 2013 in the CKD Growth and Development observational cohort study.Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. 10/2014;