Frequent incorporation of ribonucleotides during HIV-1 reverse transcription and their attenuated repair in macrophages.
ABSTRACT Macrophages are well known long-lived reservoirs of HIV-1. Unlike activated CD4(+) T cells, this nondividing HIV-1 target cell type contains a very low level of the deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) required for proviral DNA synthesis whereas the ribonucleoside triphosphate (rNTP) levels remain in the millimolar range, resulting in an extremely low dNTP/rNTP ratio. Biochemical simulations demonstrate that HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) efficiently incorporates ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs) during DNA synthesis at this ratio, predicting frequent rNMP incorporation by the virus specifically in macrophages. Indeed, HIV-1 RT incorporates rNMPs at a remarkable rate of 1/146 nucleotides during macrophage infection. This greatly exceeds known rates for cellular replicative polymerases. In contrast, little or no rNMP incorporation is detected in CD4(+) T cells. Repair of these rNMP lesions is also substantially delayed in macrophages compared with CD4(+) T cells. Single rNMPs embedded in a DNA template are known to induce cellular DNA polymerase pausing, which mechanistically contributes to mutation synthesis. Indeed, we also observed that embedded rNMPs in a dsDNA template also induce HIV-1 RT DNA synthesis pausing. Moreover, unrepaired rNMPs incorporated into the provirus during HIV-1 reverse transcription would be generally mutagenic as was shown in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most importantly, the frequent incorporation of rNMPs makes them an ideal candidate for development of a new class of HIV RT inhibitors.
- SourceAvailable from: Christian Reinhard[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: SIVMAC/HIV-2 Vpx recruits the CUL4A-DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to degrade the deoxynucleotide hydrolase SAMHD1. This increases the concentration of deoxynucleotides available for reverse transcription in myeloid cells and resting T cells. Accordingly, transduction of these cells by SIVMAC requires Vpx. Virus-like particles containing SIVMAC Vpx (Vpx-VLPs) also increase the efficiency of HIV-1 transduction in these cells, and rescue transduction by HIV-1, but not SIVMAC, in mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). Differences in Vpx mechanism noted at that time, along with recent data suggesting that SAMHD1 gains additional restriction capabilities in the presence of type I IFN prompted further examination of the role of Vpx and SAMHD1 in HIV-1 transduction of mature MDDCs. When challenged with Vpx-VLPs, SAMHD1 was degraded in MDDCs even after cells had been matured with LPS, though there was no increase in deoxynucleotide levels. Steady-state levels of HIV-1 late reverse transcription products in mature MDDCs were increased to the same extent by either Vpx-VLPs or exogenous nucleosides. In contrast, only Vpx-VLPs increased the levels of 2-LTR circles and proviral DNA in myeloid cells. These results demonstrate that exogenous nucleosides and Vpx-VLPs both increase the levels of HIV-1 cDNA in myeloid cells, but only Vpx-VLPs rescue 2-LTR circles and proviral DNA in myeloid cells with a previously established antiviral state. Finally, since trans-acting Vpx-VLPs provide long-lasting rescue of HIV-1 vector transduction in the face of the antiviral state, and exogenous nucleosides do not, exogenous nucleosides were used to achieve efficient transduction of MDDCs by vectors that stably encode Vprs and Vpxs from a collection of primate lentiviruses. Vpr from SIVDEB or SIVMUS, Vpx from SIVMAC251 or HIV-2, but not SIVRCM, degraded endogenous SAMHD1, increased steady-state levels of HIV-1 cDNA, and rescued HIV-1 from the antiviral state in MDDCs. Inhibition of deoxynucleotide hydrolysis by promoting SAMHD1 degradation is not the only mechanism by which Vpx rescues HIV-1 in MDDCs from the antiviral state. Vpx has an additional effect on HIV-1 transduction of these cells that occurs after completion of reverse transcription and acts independently of deoxynucleotide levels.Retrovirology 02/2014; 11(1):12. · 4.77 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: SAMHD1 is the most recent addition to a unique group of host restriction factors that limit retroviral replication at distinct stages of the viral life cycle. SAMHD1 is a deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase that degrades the intracellular pool of deoxynucleoside triphosphates available during early reverse transcription. SAMHD1 activity is blocked by the Vpx accessory function present in HIV-2 and SIVsm. Mutations in SAMHD1 are associated with the autoimmune disorder Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, thus emphasizing its role in regulation of the immune response. SAMHD1 anti-retroviral activity is modulated by post-translational modifications, cell-cycle dependent functions and cytokine-mediated changes. Innate receptors that sense retroviral DNA intermediates are the focus of intense study, and recent studies have established a link between SAMHD1 restriction, innate sensing of DNA and protective immune responses. Cell-cycle dependent regulation of SAMHD1 by phosphorylation and the increasingly broad range of viruses inhibited by SAMHD1 further emphasize the importance of these mechanisms of host restriction. This review highlights current knowledge regarding SAMHD1 regulation and its impact on innate immune signalling and retroviral restriction.Journal of Molecular Biology 10/2013; · 3.91 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Template switching can occur during the reverse transcription of HIV-1. Deoxynucleotides (dNTP) concentrations have been biochemically shown to impact HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT)-mediated strand transfer. Lowering the dNTP concentrations promotes RT pausing and RNA template degradation by RNase H activity of the RT, subsequently leading to strand transfer. Terminally differentiated/nondividing macrophages, which serve as a key HIV-1 reservoir, contain extremely low dNTP concentrations (20-50 nM), which results from the cellular dNTP hydrolyzing SAMHD1 protein, compared to activated CD4+ T cells (2-5 μM). In this report, we first observed that HIV-1 template switching efficiency was nearly doubled in human primary macrophages than compare to activated CD4+ T cells. Second, SAMHD1 degradation by Vpx, which elevates cellular dNTP concentrations, decreased HIV-1 template switching efficiency in macrophages to the levels comparable to CD4+ T cells. Third, differentiated SAMHD1 shRNA THP-1 cells have a 2-fold increase in HIV-1 template switching efficiency. Fourth, SAMHD1 degradation by Vpx did not alter HIV-1 template switching efficiency in activated CD4+ T cells. Finally, the HIV-1 V148I RT mutant that is defective in dNTP binding and has DNA synthesis delay, promoted RT stand transfer when compared to wild type RT, particularly at low dNTP concentrations. Here, we report that SAMHD1 regulation of the dNTP concentrations influences HIV-1 template switching efficiency particularly in macrophages.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor