Impact of nitrogen concentration on validamycin A production and related gene transcription in fermentation of Streptomyces hygroscopicus 5008.
ABSTRACT Validamycin A (VAL-A) is an important and widely used agricultural antibiotic. In this study, statistical screening designs were applied to identify significant medium variables for VAL-A production and to find their optimal levels. The optimized medium caused 70% enhancement of VAL-A production. The difference between optimized medium and original medium suggested that low nitrogen source level might attribute to the enhancement of VAL-A production. The addition of different nitrogen sources to the optimized medium inhibited VAL-A production, which confirmed the importance of nitrogen concentration for VAL-A production. Furthermore, differences in structural gene transcription and enzyme activity between the two media were assayed. The results showed that lower nitrogen level in the optimized medium could regulate VAL-A production in gene transcriptional level. Our previous study indicated that the transcription of VAL-A structural genes could be enhanced at elevated temperature. In this work, the increased fermentation temperature from 37 to 42 °C with the optimized medium enhanced VAL-A production by 39%, which testified to the importance of structural gene transcription in VAL-A production. The information is useful for further VAL-A production enhancement.
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ABSTRACT: Validamycin A (VAL-A), produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus, is an important anti-fungal agro-antibiotic. In this work, the effect of fermentation temperature on VAL-A biosynthesis by S. hygroscopicus 5008 was investigated between 28 degrees C and 42 degrees C, and an interesting threshold of temperature for VAL-A biosynthesis was found between 35 degrees C and 37 degrees C. At a relatively higher temperature, a much higher VAL-A productivity was obtained together with faster protein synthesis and sugar consumption. Transcriptional analysis of samples from early, middle and late stages of fermentation at various temperatures demonstrated that three operons, valABC, valKLMN and valG, for all eight necessary structure genes, were dramatically promoted when temperature reached the threshold. Activities of both glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) of pentose-phosphate pathway and ValG of VAL-A biosynthesis were also enhanced at a higher cultivation temperature. The interesting temperature effect with a 2 degrees C threshold shift from 35 degrees C to 37 degrees C on the antibiotic biosynthesis was understood to be related to the gene transcriptional levels and key enzyme activities.Journal of biotechnology 06/2009; 142(3-4):271-4. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Production of beta-lactam antibiotics took place during growth of Streptomyces clavulgerus in chemically defined medium. The specific activities of isopenicillin N synthetase ("cyclase"), isopenicillin N epimerase, and deacetoxycephalosporin C synthetase ("expandase") increased during the exponential phase of growth. Specific cephalosporin productivity during fermentation followed a similar pattern, reaching a maximum near the end of the growth phase and decaying rapidly in the stationary phase. Ammonium chloride depressed cephalosporin production, presumably as a result of repression of cyclase and expandase formation, but not of epimerase. No inhibitory effects on enzyme activity by ammonium were found. Addition of tribasic magnesium phosphate [Mg3(PO4)2 X 8H2O] prevented the repression of cyclase and markedly stimulated cephalosporin production. Cephamycin C and, in smaller amounts, O-carbamoyldeacetylcephalosporin C were the only cephalosporins detected. Growth with ammonium resulted in lower titers of both compounds, and did not change the relative proportion of each. The correlation found between cephalosporin productivity and cyclase specific activity in different media suggests that formation of this enzyme may be the rate-limiting step in the pathway.Canadian Journal of Microbiology 09/1985; 31(8):736-43. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of validamycin, an aminocyclitol antibiotic widely used as a control agent for sheath blight disease of rice plants, was identified from Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. jinggangensis 5008 using heterologous probe acbC, a gene involved in the cyclization of D-sedoheptulose 7-phosphate to 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone of the acarbose biosynthetic gene cluster originated from Actinoplanes sp. strain SE50/110. Deletion of a 30-kb DNA fragment from this cluster in the chromosome resulted in loss of validamycin production, confirming a direct involvement of the gene cluster in the biosynthesis of this important plant protectant. A sequenced 6-kb fragment contained valA (an acbC homologue encoding a putative cyclase) as well as two additional complete open reading frames (valB and valC, encoding a putative adenyltransferase and a kinase, respectively), which are organized as an operon. The function of ValA was genetically demonstrated to be essential for validamycin production and biochemically shown to be responsible specifically for the cyclization of D-sedoheptulose 7-phosphate to 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone in vitro using the ValA protein heterologously overexpressed in E. coli. The information obtained should pave the way for further detailed analysis of the complete biosynthetic pathway, which would lead to a complete understanding of validamycin biosynthesis.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 10/2005; 71(9):5066-76. · 3.68 Impact Factor