Article

Inositol 5-phosphatases: insights from the Lowe syndrome protein OCRL

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States
Trends in Biochemical Sciences (Impact Factor: 13.52). 02/2012; 37(4):134-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.tibs.2012.01.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The precise regulation of phosphoinositide lipids in cellular membranes is crucial for cellular survival and function. Inositol 5-phosphatases have been implicated in a variety of disorders, including various cancers, obesity, type 2 diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and rare genetic conditions. Despite the obvious impact on human health, relatively little structural and biochemical information is available for this family. Here, we review recent structural and mechanistic work on the 5-phosphatases with a focus on OCRL, whose loss of function results in oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe and Dent 2 disease. Studies of OCRL emphasize how the actions of 5-phosphatases rely on both intrinsic and extrinsic membrane recognition properties for full catalytic function. Additionally, structural analysis of missense mutations in the catalytic domain of OCRL provides insight into the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in Lowe syndrome and Dent disease.

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    ABSTRACT: The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe is a rare X-linked multisystemic disorder characterized by the triad of congenital cataracts, cognitive and behavioral impairment and a renal proximal tubulopathy in almost all of the patients. Whereas the ocular manifestations and severe hypotonia are present at birth, the renal involvement appears within the first months of life. Patients show progressive growth retardation and may develop a debilitating arthropathy. Treatment is symptomatic and life span rarely exceeds 40 yr. The causative OCRL gene, encodes an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase. OCRL mutations were not only found in classic Lowe syndrome, but also in milder affected patients, classified as having Dent-2 disease. There is a phenotypic continuum within patients with Dent-2 disease and Lowe syndrome, suggesting that there are individual differences in the ability to compensate for loss of enzyme function. Researchers have conducted a large amount of work to understand the etiology respon- sible for the disease. However, the mechanisms leading to the clinical manifestations are still poorly understood and we are far from an effective therapy. In this review, we have included well-established findings and the most recent progress in understanding Lowe syndrome and Dent-2 disease.
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    ABSTRACT: Lowe syndrome and Dent-2 disease are caused by mutation of the inositol 5-phosphatase OCRL1. Despite our increased understanding of the cellular functions of OCRL1, the underlying basis for the renal tubulopathy seen in both human disorders, of which a hallmark is low molecular weight proteinuria, is currently unknown. Here, we show that deficiency in OCRL1 causes a defect in endocytosis in the zebrafish pronephric tubule, a model for the mammalian renal tubule. This coincides with a reduction in levels of the scavenger receptor megalin and its accumulation in endocytic compartments, consistent with reduced recycling within the endocytic pathway. We also observe reduced numbers of early endocytic compartments and enlarged vacuolar endosomes in the sub-apical region of pronephric cells. Cell polarity within the pronephric tubule is unaffected in mutant embryos. The OCRL1-deficient embryos exhibit a mild ciliogenesis defect, but this cannot account for the observed impairment of endocytosis. Catalytic activity of OCRL1 is required for renal tubular endocytosis and the endocytic defect can be rescued by suppression of PIP5K. These results indicate for the first time that OCRL1 is required for endocytic trafficking in vivo, and strongly support the hypothesis that endocytic defects are responsible for the renal tubulopathy in Lowe syndrome and Dent-2 disease. Moreover, our results reveal PIP5K as a potential therapeutic target for Lowe syndrome and Dent-2 disease.
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    ABSTRACT: More than twenty different genetic diseases have been described that are caused by mutations in phosphoinositide metabolizing enzymes, mostly in phosphoinositide phosphatases. Although generally ubiquitously expressed, mutations in these enzymes, which are mainly loss-of-function, result in tissue-restricted clinical manifestations through mechanisms that are not completely understood. Here we analyze selected disorders of phosphoinositide metabolism grouped according to the principle tissue affected: the nervous system, muscle, kidney, the osteoskeletal system, the eye, and the immune system. We will highlight what has been learnt so far from the study of these disorders about the cellular and molecular pathways that involve or are governed by phosphoinositides, but also the many gaps that remain to be filled to gain a full understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the clinical manifestations of this steadily growing class of diseases, most of which still remain orphan in terms of treatment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phosphoinositides. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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