Selenium and human health. Lancet

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 02/2012; 379(9822):1256-68. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61452-9
Source: PubMed


Selenium is incorporated into selenoproteins that have a wide range of pleiotropic effects, ranging from antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects to the production of active thyroid hormone. In the past 10 years, the discovery of disease-associated polymorphisms in selenoprotein genes has drawn attention to the relevance of selenoproteins to health. Low selenium status has been associated with increased risk of mortality, poor immune function, and cognitive decline. Higher selenium status or selenium supplementation has antiviral effects, is essential for successful male and female reproduction, and reduces the risk of autoimmune thyroid disease. Prospective studies have generally shown some benefit of higher selenium status on the risk of prostate, lung, colorectal, and bladder cancers, but findings from trials have been mixed, which probably emphasises the fact that supplementation will confer benefit only if intake of a nutrient is inadequate. Supplementation of people who already have adequate intake with additional selenium might increase their risk of type-2 diabetes. The crucial factor that needs to be emphasised with regard to the health effects of selenium is the inextricable U-shaped link with status; whereas additional selenium intake may benefit people with low status, those with adequate-to-high status might be affected adversely and should not take selenium supplements.

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    • "An estimated 0.5–1 billion people worldwide have been affected by low level selenium intake [5]. Selenium deficiency may lead to increase in the risk of various pathologies including cardiovascular diseases [6]. Many recent studies indicate selenium as a nutritional food and are recommended by German and Austrian Nutrition Societies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is the damage caused to the heart muscles due to high level of alcohol consumption resulting in enlargement and inflammation of the heart. Selenium is an important trace element that is beneficial to human health. Selenium protects the cells by preventing the formation of free radicals in the body. In the present study, protein mediated synthesis of SeNPs was investigated. Two different sizes of SeNPs were synthesized using BSA and keratin. The synthesized SeNPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with elemental composition analysis Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). This study demonstrates the in vitro and in vivo antioxidative effects of sodium selenite and SeNPs. Further selenium and SeNPs were evaluated for their ability to protect against 1% ethanol induced oxidative stress in H9C2 cell line. The selenium and SeNPs were found to reduce the 1% ethanol-induced oxidative damage through scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species. The selenium and SeNPs could also prevent pericardial edema induced ethanol treatment and reduced apoptosis and cell death in zebrafish embryos. The results indicate that selenium and SeNPs could potentially be used as an additive in alcoholic beverage industry to control the cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 10/2015; 32:135-144. DOI:10.1016/j.jtemb.2015.06.010 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    • "The physiopathologic mechanism for this iron deficiency is thought to be multifactorial, including impaired absorption due to decreased acid secretion and active sequestration of the essential metal ion by the pathogen (Barabino 2002). Selenium is a nonmetal micronutrient essential for human health (Rayman 2012). The necessity of selenium derives from its incorporation as selenocysteine (Sec) into a number of redox proteins (Kryukov et al. 2003) involved in physiological processes, such as aging, immune function, and reproduction (Ursini et al. 1999; Martin-Romero et al. 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: By competing for the acquisition of essential nutrients, Helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to persist in the human stomach, also causing nutritional insufficiencies in the host. Although the H. pylori genome apparently encodes selenocysteine synthase (SelA, HP1513), a key PLP-dependent enzyme for the incorporation of selenium into bacterial proteins, nothing is known about the use of this essential element in protein synthesis by this pathogen. We analyzed the evolution of the complete machinery for incorporation of selenium into proteins and the selenoproteome of several H. pylori strains and related Epsilonproteobacteria. Our searches identified the presence of selenoproteins -including the previously unknown DUF466 family- in various Epsilonproteobacteria, but not in H. pylori. We found that a complete system for selenocysteine incorporation was present in the Helicobacteriaceae ancestor and has been recently lost before the split of H. acinonychis and H. pylori. Our results indicate that H. pylori, at variance with other gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter, does not use selenocysteine in protein synthesis and does not use selenium for tRNA wobble base modification. However, selA has survived as a functional gene, having lost the domain for the binding of selenocysteine tRNA, but maintaining the ability to bind the PLP cofactor. The evolutionary modifications described for the SelA protein of H. pylori find parallels in other bacterial and archaeal species, suggesting that an alternative enzymatic function is hidden in many proteins annotated as selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase.
    Genome Biology and Evolution 09/2015; DOI:10.1093/gbe/evv177 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Selenium (Se) is an essential element for animals and humans. Low Se status has been associated with increased risk of mortality, impaired immune function and cognitive decline (Fairweather-Tait et al., 2011; Rayman, 2012). The Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) proposed a Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI) of 60 and 75 lg d À1 for females and males, respectively, based on a requirement of 1 lg Se kg À1 body weight d À1 (Fairweather-Tait et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing interest in enhancing the micronutrient composition of cereals through fertilization. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the Se concentration of commercial beers retailing in the UK, and (2) to test if the transfer of Se, from biofortified grain to final beer product, is <10% under UK cultivation conditions, as seen previously under Mediterranean conditions. The Se concentration of 128 commercial beers was measured, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium content of commercial beers varied 6.5-fold, with beers originating from America having higher Se concentrations than those from Europe. Laboratory-scale brewing trials with isotopically-enriched (77)Se wheat, sampled from UK field-sites, showed that most (77)Se losses in the brewing process occurred during mashing (54%), with fermented beer containing ∼10% of the (77)Se initially present in the wheat grain. Total N values in wort and malt were positively correlated with the (77)Se content of the wheat grain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Food Chemistry 09/2015; 182. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.02.121 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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