Role of Carbohydrate Modification in Weight Management among Obese Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial
ABSTRACT To compare the effectiveness and safety of carbohydrate (CHO)-modified diets with a standard portion-controlled (PC) diet in obese children.
Obese children (n=102) aged 7-12 years were randomly assigned to a 3-month intervention of a low-CHO (LC), reduced glycemic load (RGL), or standard PC diet, along with weekly dietary counseling and biweekly group exercise. Anthropometry, dietary adherence, and clinical measures were evaluated at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months. Analyses applied intention-to-treat longitudinal mixed models.
Eighty-five children (83%) completed the 12-month assessment. Daily caloric intake decreased from baseline to all time points for all diet groups (P<.0001), although LC diet adherence was persistently lower (P<.0002). At 3 months, body mass index z score was lower in all diet groups (LC, -0.27 ± 0.04; RGL, -0.20 ± 0.04; PC, -0.21 ± 0.04; P<.0001) and was maintained at 6 months, with similar results for waist circumference and percent body fat. At 12 months, participants in all diet groups had lower body mass index z scores than at baseline (LC, -0.21 ± 0.04; RGL, -0.28 ± 0.04; PC, -0.31 ± 0.04; P<.0001), and lower percent body fat, but no reductions in waist circumference were maintained. All diets demonstrated some improved clinical measures.
Diets with modified CHO intake were as effective as a PC diet for weight management in obese children. However, the lower adherence to the LC diet suggests that this regimen is more difficult for children to follow, particularly in the long term.
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ABSTRACT: Treatments for childhood obesity are critically needed because of the risk of developing co-morbidities, although the interventions are frequently time-consuming, frustrating, difficult, and expensive. We conducted a longitudinal, randomised, clinical study, based on a per protocol analysis, on 133 obese children and adolescents (n = 69 males and 64 females; median age, 11.3 years) with family history of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The patients were divided into three arms: Arm A (n = 53 patients), Arm B (n = 45 patients), and Arm C (n = 35 patients) patients were treated with a low-glycaemic-index (LGI) diet and Policaptil Gel Retard®, only a LGI diet, or only an energy-restricted diet (ERD), respectively. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the Matsuda, insulinogenic and disposition indexes were calculated at T0 and after 1 year (T1). At T1, the BMI-SD scores were significantly reduced from 2.32 to 1.80 (p < 0.0001) in Arm A and from 2.23 to 1.99 (p < 0.05) in Arm B. Acanthosis nigricans was significantly reduced in Arm A (13.2% to 5.6%; p < 0.05), and glycosylated-haemoglobin levels were significantly reduced in Arms A (p < 0.005). The percentage of glucose-metabolism abnormalities was reduced, although not significantly. However, the HOMA-IR index was significantly reduced in Arms A (p < 0.0001) and B (p < 0.05), with Arm A showing a significant reduction in the insulinogenic index (p < 0.05). Finally, the disposition index was significantly improved in Arms A (p < 0.0001) and B (p < 0.05). A LGI diet, particularly associated with the use of Policaptil Gel Retard®, may reduce weight gain and ameliorate the metabolic syndrome and insulin-resistance parameters in obese children and adolescents with family history of obesity and T2DM.Italian Journal of Pediatrics 12/2015; 41(1). DOI:10.1186/s13052-015-0109-7 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 15% of children and adolescents in Germany are overweight, including 6.3% who are affected by obesity. The efficacy of conservative weight-loss treatments has been demonstrated, but there has not yet been a detailed analysis of their efficacy in terms of the amount of weight loss that can be expected. We re-evaluated the available evidence on this question, with particular attention to the methodological quality of clinical trials, in order to derive information that might be a useful guide for treatment. We conducted a systematic literature search of Medline for the period May 2008 (final inclusion date for a 2009 Cochrane Review) to December 2013. The identified studies were analyzed qualitatively. 48 randomized controlled clinical trials with a total of 5025 participants met the predefined inclusion criteria for this analysis. In the ones that met predefined criteria for methodological quality, conservative weight-loss treatments led to weight loss in amounts ranging from 0.05 to 0.42 BMI z score (standard deviation score of the body mass index) over a period of 12-24 months. Information on trial dropout rates was available for 41 of the 48 trials; the dropout rate was 10% or higher in 27 of these (66% ), and 25% or higher in 9 (22% ). The available evidence consistently shows that only a modest degree of weight loss can be expected from conservative treatment. Families seeking treatment should be informed of this fact. Future research should focus on determining predictive factors for therapeutic benefit, and on the evaluation of additional types of psychological intervention to promote coping with obesity.Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 11/2014; 111(48):818-24. DOI:10.3238/arztebl.2014.0818 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Childhood obesity is a global health problem with short-and long-term health consequences. This systematic review presents a summary of the experiences on different family-, school-, and clinic-based interventions. Materials and Methods: Electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus scientific databases. We included those studies conducted among obese individuals aged up to 18 years. Our search yielded 105 relevant papers, 70 of them were conducted as high quality clinical trials. Results: Our findings propose that school-based programs can have long-term effects in a large target group. This can be related to this fact that children spend a considerable part of their time in school, and adopt some parts of lifestyle there. They have remarkable consequences on health behaviors, but as there are some common limitations, their effects on anthropometric measures are not clear. Due to the crucial role of parents in development of children's behaviors, family-based interventions are reported to have successful effects in some aspects; but selection bias and high dropout rate can confound their results. Clinic-based interventions revealed favorable effects. They include dietary or other lifestyle changes like increasing physical activity or behavior therapy. It seems that a comprehensive intervention including diet and exercise are more practical. When they have different designs, results are controversial. Conclusion: We suggest that among different types of interventional programs, a multidisciplinary approach in schools in which children's family are involved, can be the best and most sustainable approach for management of childhood obesity. Primordial/primary prevention of pediatrics obesity and establishment of a healthy lifestyle behaviors from early life are the favored against the epidemic of obesity at the global level.  Effective interventions for prevention and control of childhood obesity should be considered for different aspects. [11,17-24] Experts recommend specific eating and physical activity (PA) behaviors through counseling.  Along with clinic-based interventions, researchers have attempted to manage obesity by virtue of family, community, school, and after school programs. Based on Cochrane review of obesity prevention programs in children, most of the well-designed interventions had positive results especially in 6-12-year-old children.  Clearly targeted interventions for children and population-based approach for adolescents may be useful and make economic sense. The purpose of this investigation was to systematically review the effects of various clinical-, family-, and community-based interventions targeting the control of childhood obesity and make a suggestion for future interventions.Journal of research in medical sciences 12/2014; 19:993-1008. · 0.61 Impact Factor