The health care burden of patients with epilepsy in the United States: an analysis of a nationwide database over 15 years.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the national health care burden of patients diagnosed with epilepsy in the US and to analyze any changes in the length of stay, mean charges, in-hospital deaths (mortality), and disposition at discharge.
A retrospective review of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database for epilepsy admissions was completed for the years from 1993 to 2008. The NIS is maintained by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and represents a 20% random stratified sample of all discharges from nonfederal hospitals within the U.S. Patients with epilepsy were identified using ICD-9 codes beginning with 345.XX. Approximately 1.1 million hospital admissions were identified over a span of 15 years.
Over this 15-year period (between 1993 and 2008), the average hospital charge per admission for patients with epilepsy has increased significantly (p < 0.001) from $10,050 to $23,909, an increase of 137.9%. This is in spite of a 33% decrease in average length of stay from 5.9 days to 3.9 days. There has been a decrease in the percentage of in-hospital deaths by 57.9% and an increase in discharge to outside medical institutions.
The total national charges associated with epilepsy in 2008 were in excess of $2.7 billion (U.S. dollars, normalized). During the studied period, the cost per day for patients rose from $1703.39 to $6130.51. In spite of this drastic increase in health care cost to the patient, medical and surgical treatment for epilepsy has not changed significantly, and epilepsy remains a major source of morbidity.
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ABSTRACT: Our objective was to identify the top MD-office, inpatient and outpatient diagnoses, procedures, drug classes, comorbidities, and cost of health care for people with epilepsy. We examined health insurance claims for 8388 persons with epilepsy (females = 52%, males = 48%; average age = 35 years; privately insured = 78%, and Medicaid-insured = 22%) from eight health insurance plans for the year 2012. All of the top three diagnoses for MD-office place of service were either for other convulsions (780.39) or for epilepsy (345.90 and 345.40). Two of the top three primary diagnosis codes from the inpatient hospital and emergency department places of service were 780.39 and 345.90 for convulsions and epilepsy, respectively, while the third code was 786.50 for chest pain. The top three procedures from the MD-office setting were for immunizations (90471 and 90658) and blood counts (85025). The top three procedure codes from the outpatient hospital setting were 85025 for complete blood count, 80053 for comprehensive metabolic panel, and 80048 for basic metabolic panel. In the emergency department, the top three procedures were electrocardiogram (93010), computed tomography (70450), and chest X-ray (71020). The top five drug classes among prescription drugs billed using an NDC code were (1) anticonvulsants, (2) analgesic-opioids, (3) antidepressants, (4) penicillins, and (5) dermatologicals. The mean monthly health plan paid cost for each patient with epilepsy in 2012 was $1028 (SD = $3181). Of this total, $761 (SD = $2988; 74%) was for medical, and $267 (SD = $760; 26%) was for prescription pharmacy claims. Fifty-eight percent (58%) of the patients had one or more of 29 prespecified comorbidities, while 42% had none. Monthly health-care costs increased markedly as the number of comorbidities increased. This information should help guide cost estimates and resource allocation in order to optimally care for people with epilepsy.Epilepsy & Behavior 10/2014; 41:83–90. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2014.08.131 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective We observed a substantial increase in age-adjusted hospitalization rates in the United States National Hospital Discharge Survey data from 1996 to 2010. We aimed to assess reasons for this increase.Methods The National Hospital Discharge Survey collected data on a national sample of short-term hospital stays in nonfederal hospitals. We determined epilepsy-related discharge diagnoses by age, gender, and region using weighted analysis, and estimated age-adjusted rates and annual percent changes using regression analysis. We also looked at epilepsy as the principal discharge diagnosis in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project.ResultsIn the United States, on average, nearly 110,000 more admissions were reported each year with epilepsy as the principal discharge diagnosis in 2006–2010 than in 1996–2005, a 2.7-fold increase in hospitalization rates from epilepsy. During this period, there were more hospitalizations with principal discharge diagnosis of epilepsy not otherwise specified, and among older patients. The number of discharges with seizure not otherwise specified dropped dramatically after 2006, and was more evident among pediatric patients. The age-adjusted rates of hospital stays combining discharges with any mention of epilepsy (345.XX) or seizures unspecified (780.39) in seven discharge diagnoses, were similar in 1996–2005 and 2006–2010. SignificanceWe postulate that the excess in hospitalizations with epilepsy as first discharge diagnosis in 2006–2010 in the United States was related to the changes in coding in 2006. Any use of U.S. hospital discharge data with epilepsy-related diagnosis after that date will require further validation.A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.Epilepsia 07/2014; 55(9). DOI:10.1111/epi.12719 · 4.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ability to focus acoustic energy through the intact skull on to targets millimeters in size represents an important milestone in the development of neurotherapeutics. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a novel, noninvasive method, which-under real-time imaging and thermographic guidance-can be used to generate focal intracranial thermal ablative lesions and disrupt the blood-brain barrier. An established treatment for bone metastases, uterine fibroids, and breast lesions, MRgFUS has now been proposed as an alternative to open neurosurgical procedures for a wide variety of indications. Studies investigating intracranial MRgFUS range from small animal preclinical experiments to large, late-phase randomized trials that span the clinical spectrum from movement disorders, to vascular, oncologic, and psychiatric applications. We review the principles of MRgFUS and its use for brain-based disorders, and outline future directions for this promising technology.Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 05/2014; DOI:10.1007/s13311-014-0281-2 · 3.88 Impact Factor