The aim of this study was to analyze the national health care burden of patients diagnosed with epilepsy in the US and to analyze any changes in the length of stay, mean charges, in-hospital deaths (mortality), and disposition at discharge.
A retrospective review of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database for epilepsy admissions was completed for the years from 1993 to 2008. The NIS is maintained by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and represents a 20% random stratified sample of all discharges from nonfederal hospitals within the U.S. Patients with epilepsy were identified using ICD-9 codes beginning with 345.XX. Approximately 1.1 million hospital admissions were identified over a span of 15 years.
Over this 15-year period (between 1993 and 2008), the average hospital charge per admission for patients with epilepsy has increased significantly (p < 0.001) from $10,050 to $23,909, an increase of 137.9%. This is in spite of a 33% decrease in average length of stay from 5.9 days to 3.9 days. There has been a decrease in the percentage of in-hospital deaths by 57.9% and an increase in discharge to outside medical institutions.
The total national charges associated with epilepsy in 2008 were in excess of $2.7 billion (U.S. dollars, normalized). During the studied period, the cost per day for patients rose from $1703.39 to $6130.51. In spite of this drastic increase in health care cost to the patient, medical and surgical treatment for epilepsy has not changed significantly, and epilepsy remains a major source of morbidity.
"Approximately 50 million people worldwide are affected by epilepsy  and it represents the second neurological disorder in incidence and prevalence after cerebrovascular disease . It has a significant psychological and social impact on patients and relatives, and its high morbidity and low mortality create increasing and disproportionately high costs of illness compared with other diseases  . Most of the patients are successfully controlled with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs); however, treatment-resistant epilepsy (TRE) has been reported to occur in 20–30% of patients [1,5–7] and only 20–40% of them meet criteria for surgical treatment . "
"Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Epidemiological studies found a prevalence of 0.5 to 1 % of the European and North American population, and economic costs are high (MacDonald et al. 2000; Pachlatko 2008; Vivas et al. 2012). About 60 % of epilepsy cases are classified as focal epilepsies (Loiseau et al. 1990). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testing of verbal fluency is currently part of standard presurgical neuropsychological assessment for patients with focal epilepsy. However, to date no systematic review has been conducted on semantic (SVF) and phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) in this patient group. The present review compares verbal fluency between healthy control subjects and subgroups of adult presurgical patients with focal epilepsy according to lateralisation and localisation of the dysfunction. PubMed was searched with a comprehensive search string. Abstracts of all studies and full-texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Study quality was assessed by independent raters according to predefined criteria. 39 studies were included. Meta-analyses were performed to compare SVF and PVF across groups of patients with temporal (TLE) and frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) as well as healthy controls (HC). Both patients with left- and right sided TLE were impaired on SVF and PVF compared to HC. Patients with left-sided TLE were slightly more impaired than patients with right-sided TLE. Patients with FLE showed a larger impairment in PVF than patients with TLE, whereas on SVF there was no difference between FLE and TLE. For TLE comparisons the study pool seems to have been sufficient, whereas more studies are needed to verify results for FLE. Semantic verbal fluency might not differentiate between FLE and TLE. While verbal fluency impairment was anticipated, especially in left-sided TLE and FLE patients, the impairment in patients with right-sided TLE was larger than expected. Results are discussed with regard to neuropsychological theory and practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Voiding dysfunctions are common neurological complications after a stroke, yet there are few urodynamic studies of patients with cerebellar stroke. We report the video urodynamic findings of 15 patients with cerebellar stroke, including eight patients with ischemic and seven with hemorrhagic stroke. Their mean age was 75 ± 13.4 years and the mean interval from stroke to video urodynamic study was 11.2 ± 17.9 months. At urodynamic study, four (50 %) patients with ischemic stroke had urinary incontinence as did two (28 %) patients with hemorrhagic stroke. Detrusor overactivity (DO) was found in eight (53 %) patients, dyssynergic urethral sphincter in six (40 %), and nonrelaxing urethral sphincter in seven (47 %). DO occurred in six (75 %) of patients with ischemic stroke and in two (28.6 %) of patients with hemorrhagic stroke (p = 0.072). While DO was not found in five of the 15 patients within 2 months after the stroke, it was more frequently detected in eight (80 %) of the 10 remaining patients 2 or more months after stroke (p = 0.007). Four (80 %) of the five stroke patients had nonrelaxing sphincter and urinary retention within 2 months after stroke. Two or more months after their strokes, coordinated sphincter function was noted in two (20 %) patients and dyssynergic sphincter was found in six (60 %); two (20 %) remained with nonrelaxing sphincter. Thus, lower urinary tract dysfunction caused by cerebellar stroke may change with time. Knowledge of video urodynamic findings should help us better manage voiding dysfunction in patients with cerebellar stroke.
The Cerebellum 03/2013; 12(5). DOI:10.1007/s12311-013-0468-9 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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