Differential effects of dairy snacks on appetite, but not overall energy intake

Hugh Sinclair Human Nutrition Group, Food and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, UK.
The British journal of nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 03/2012; 70(OCE4):1-12. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114512000323
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dietary regulation of appetite may contribute to the prevention and management of excess body weight. The present study examined the effect of consumption of individual dairy products as snacks on appetite and subsequent ad libitum lunch energy intake. In a randomised cross-over trial, forty overweight men (age 32 (sd 9) years; BMI 27 (sd 2) kg/m2) attended four sessions 1 week apart and received three isoenergetic (841 kJ) and isovolumetric (410 ml) servings of dairy snacks or water (control) 120 min after breakfast. Appetite profile was determined throughout the morning and ad libitum energy intake was assessed 90 min after the intake of snacks. Concentrations of amino acids, glucose, insulin, ghrelin and peptide tyrosine tyrosine were measured at baseline (0 min) and 80 min after the intake of snacks. Although the results showed that yogurt had the greatest suppressive effect on appetite, this could be confounded by the poor sensory ratings of yogurt. Hunger rating was 8, 10 and 24 % (P < 0·001) lower after the intake of yogurt than cheese, milk and water, respectively. Energy intake was 11, 9 and 12 % (P < 0·02) lower after the intake of yogurt, cheese and milk, respectively, compared with water (4312 (se 226) kJ). Although there was no difference in the postprandial responses of hormones, alanine and isoleucine concentrations were higher after the intake of yogurt than cheese and milk (P < 0·05). In conclusion, all dairy snacks reduced appetite and lunch intake compared with water. Yogurt had the greatest effect on suppressing subjective appetite ratings, but did not affect subsequent food intake compared with milk or cheese.

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Available from: Ian Givens, Aug 26, 2014
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    • "A number of studies have covertly studied the effect of different types of proteins on satiety [5]. Fewer data compare sources of breakfast protein fed as recognisable, individual food items [6], as meals [7], or even as snacks [8]. Therefore it is unclear whether combination of different types of protein, fed as meals, can influence subjective motivation to eat at breakfast time and ad libitum food intake later in the day during dieting. "
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    ABSTRACT: Breakfast is considered an important meal for daily appetite control. We examined the effect of high-protein breakfasts on within-day appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum intake, in men and women. Twenty subjects attended on 4 occasions, to consume in a randomised order high-protein (30% energy) breakfast meals, as, 1) maintenance (MTD) fed to energy requirements (2.67 MJ), 2) a weight-loss (WL) bacon-based meal breakfast (WL-B, 2.13 MJ), 3) a WL-chicken salad (WL-CS, 2.13 MJ) and 4) a WL-smoothie (WL-S, 2.08 MJ). The 3 HP-WL breakfasts elicited differences in hunger (p = 0.007), fullness (p = 0.029), desire to eat (p = 0.006) and prospective consumption (p = 0.020). The WL-B meal reduced hunger (p = 0.002) and enhanced fullness (p = 0.02), compared with the two other WL breakfasts. Although these differences were not reflected in ad libitum energy intake later in the day, a HP breakfast can modify morning satiety, which is important during dieting.
    Food and Nutrition Sciences 03/2015; 6(3):386-390. DOI:10.4236/fns.2015.63039
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    • "In a recent article by Dougkas et al. (Dougkas et al., 2012), isocaloric (i.e., 200 kcal) morning, dairy snacks containing an average of 12 g of protein led to reduced appetite and lunch intake compared to no morning snack. Furthermore, greater reductions in appetite were observed with the yogurt snack compared to the cheese and milk snacks (Dougkas et al., 2012). Since many have speculated that the majority of snacking in the United States occurs in the afternoon and evening, rather than the morning (Stachura, 2010), we recently completed a study that extends these findings to examine the effects of consuming afternoon yogurt snacks containing normal (5 g protein) vs. increased protein (14 g protein) on appetite control and satiety (Ortinau, Culp, et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed whether afternoon snacks, varying in protein content, influence appetite-control and eating initiation. Fifteen healthy women (age: 26±2y) randomly consumed 160kcal afternoon yogurt snacks containing Low (LP), Moderate (MP), or High (HP) protein (5,14,24g protein, respectively) or had no snack (NS) for 3days. On day 4, the volunteers came to our facility to consume a standardized lunch. The respective snack pattern was completed 3h post-lunch. Perceived sensations were measured every 30min until dinner was voluntarily requested. An ad libitum dinner was then provided. Snacking, regardless of protein content, led to reduced hunger and increased fullness, which were sustained up to 120min post-snack vs. NS (all, p<0.05). Between snacks, hunger was lower and fullness was higher throughout post-snack following HP vs. LP (p<0.05). Snacking delayed the onset of eating vs. NS (all, p<0.05). Specifically, dinner was requested at 124±7min following NS, 152±7min with LP, 158±7min following MP, and 178±7min post-snack for HP. Between snacks, HP led to the latest request time vs. LP (p<0.001) and MP (p<0.05). Although the energy content consumed at dinner was lower following the yogurt snacks vs. NS, the 160kcal snacks were not fully compensated for at this meal. In conclusion, an afternoon snack of Greek yogurt, containing 24g protein, led to reduced hunger, increased fullness, and delayed subsequent eating compared to lower protein snacks in healthy women.
    Appetite 09/2012; 60(1). DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2012.09.012 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of studies have reported a heritable component for the regulation of energy intake and eating behaviour, although the individual polymorphisms and their 'effect size' are not fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between specific SNP and appetite responses and energy intake in overweight men. In a randomised cross-over trial, forty overweight men (age 32 (sd 09) years; BMI 27 (sd 2) kg/m2) attended four sessions 1 week apart and received three isoenergetic and isovolumetric servings of dairy snacks or water (control) in random order. Appetite ratings were determined using visual analogue scales and energy intake at an ad libitum lunch was assessed 90 min after the dairy snacks. Individuals were genotyped for SNP in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO), leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR) genes and a variant near the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) locus. The postprandial fullness rating over the full experiment following intake of the different snacks was 17·2 % (P= 0·026) lower in A carriers compared with TT homozygotes for rs9939609 (FTO, dominant) and 18·6 % (P= 0·020) lower in G carriers compared with AA homozygotes for rs7799039 (LEP, dominant). These observations indicate that FTO and LEP polymorphisms are related to the variation in the feeling of fullness and may play a role in the regulation of food intake. Further studies are required to confirm these initial observations and investigate the 'penetrance' of these genotypes in additional population subgroups.
    The British journal of nutrition 02/2013; 110(06):1-6. DOI:10.1017/S0007114513000147 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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