Summer Meeting, 4–6 July 2011, 70th Anniversary: From plough through practice to policy Download full-text
Differential effects of dairy snacks on appetite ratings,
but not overall energy intake
A. Dougkas1,3, A. M. Minihane2, D. I. Givens3, P. Yaqoob1and C. K. Reynolds3
1Hugh Sinclair Human Nutrition Group, School of Chemistry, Food Biosciences and Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Sciences
University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, UK,2Department of Nutrition, Norwich Medical School, University of East
Anglia (UEA), Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK and3School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, Faculty of Life Sciences,
University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AR, UK
Excess body weight has many causes, with dietary factors and physical activity levels being the most important at a population level(1).
Dietary regulation of appetite may contribute to the prevention and management of excess body weight(2). There is a paucity of available
evidence detailing the effects of increased dairy product consumption on appetite and energy intake(3). The aim of the present study was to
examine the effect of consumption of individual dairy products as snacks on appetite and subsequent ad libitum lunch energy intake.
In a randomised crossover trial, forty overweight men [age: 32 (SD 9) years; BMI (kg/m2): 27 (SD 2)] attended four sessions one week
apart and received three isoenergetic (830kJ) and isovolumetric (410ml) servings of dairy snacks or water (control) 120min after
breakfast. Subjective appetite ratings (hunger, desire to eat, fullness and prospective consumption) were determined using visual analogue
scales (VAS) throughout the morning, and ad libitum energy intake as a lunch-time meal was assessed 90min after the intake of snacks.
Fig. 1. Hunger ratings throughout the morning.
Results showed that among the milk products, yoghurt had the greatest suppressive effect on appetite. Hunger rating was 8, 10 and 24%
(P<0.001) lower after intake of yoghurt compared with intake of cheese, milk and water, respectively (Fig. 1). Similar results were
observed for ratings of desire to eat and prospective consumption (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Fullness rating was 9% (P = 0.004)
and 30% (P<0.001) higher after intake of yoghurt compared with intake of milk and water, respectively, although there was no difference
relative to cheese (P = 0.186). However, these appetite ratings between dairy products were not associated with reduced energy intake at
the subsequent lunch. Energy intake was 119 and 12% (P<0.02) lower after intake of yoghurt, cheese and milk, respectively compared
with water [4312 (SE 226) kJ]. In conclusion, yoghurt had the greatest effect on suppressing subjective appetite ratings, but did not affect
subsequent food intake.
1. Abete I, Astrup A, Martinez JA et al. (2010) Nutr Rev 68, 214–231.
2. Rolls ET (2007) Obesity Rev 8, 67–72.
3. Teegarden D & Gunther CW (2008) Nutr Rev 66, 601–605.
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (2011), 70 (OCE4), E131 doi:10.1017/S0029665111001820