Maternal depression and child BMI: longitudinal findings from a US sample
ABSTRACT To examine the association between maternal depression and child body mass index (BMI) from Kindergarten (K) to fifth grade.
Analysis of four waves of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten spanning K to fifth grade. Maternal depressive symptoms (MDSs) were measured by a brief version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analyses, adjusting for key covariates and potential confounders. The analytic sample was restricted to children of normal birth weight.
The relationship between MDS and child BMI varies by child gender and age. Among girls, severe MDS at K was related to lower BMI at third grade (but not later at fifth grade) and to an increase in BMI from K to third and K to fifth grades. Among boys, severe MDS at K was related to higher boys' BMI at fifth grade. When severe MDS occurred at third grade, it was related to higher BMI at fifth grade among girls whereas no statistically significant relationship was found for boys. Low levels of physical activity in comparison to peers at fifth grade and more screen time on weekends at third grade are likely mediators of the relationship between MDS and child BMI among girls, while among boys the relationship appears to be mediated by unhealthy eating habits.
Our findings, indicating developmental and gender differences in the relationship between maternal depression and child BMI, if confirmed, suggest that interventions addressing maternal depression may have concomitant impact on childhood obesity.
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ABSTRACT: Maternal depression is prevalent and has been associated with parenting practices that influence child weight. In this systematic review we aimed to examine the prospective association between maternal depression and child overweight. We searched four databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, Embase, and Academic Search Premier) to identify studies for inclusion. We included studies with a prospective design with at least one year follow-up, measuring maternal depression at any stage after childbirth, and examining child overweight or obesity status, BMI z-score or percentile, or adiposity. Two authors extracted data independently and findings were qualitatively synthesized. We identified nine prospective studies for inclusion. Results were examined separately for episodic depression (depression at a single measurement occasion) and chronic depression (depression on multiple measurement occasions). Mixed results were observed for the relationship between episodic depression and indicators of child adiposity. Chronic depression, but not episodic depression, was associated with greater risk for child overweight. While chronic depression may be associated with child overweight, further research is needed. Research is also needed to determine whether maternal depression influences child weight outcomes in adolescence and to investigate elements of the family ecology that may moderate the effect of maternal depression on child overweight.Preventive Medicine 11/2013; 59. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.11.020 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Child obesity continues to be a prevalent public health issue. This meta-analysis synthesized 17 studies investigating the association between levels of psychological stress experienced by mothers and the body mass index of their children. The overall standardized mean difference effect size was positive and significantly different from zero in cross-sectional d = 0.20 (k = 14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06, 0.34) and longitudinal studies d = 0.18 (k = 5, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.351) and had significant heterogeneity in both (cross-sectional, Q = 193.00, P < 0.001; longitudinal, Q = 29.46, P < 0.001). In longitudinal studies, effect sizes were larger when children also would have experienced the stressor, Q(6) = 4.68, P < 0.05, for toddlers than infants, Q(4) = 5.04, P < 0.05, and in higher quality studies, Q(4) = 14.58, P < 0.05. Results highlight the potential benefits of including a parent stress management component in childhood obesity prevention programmes. © 2015 World Obesity.Obesity Reviews 05/2015; 16(5):351-61. DOI:10.1111/obr.12262 · 7.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although earlier studies have indicated an inverse association between corpulence during childhood and the risk for breast cancer in adulthood, no study had evaluated body shape at different ages or body shape evolution in relation to the risk for breast cancer defined by menopausal status and hormone receptor status. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using multivariate Cox models in 81 089 women from the French E3N cohort to evaluate the risk for breast cancer associated with body shape (Sørensen's scale) at ages 8, menarche, 20-25, and 35-40 years. Six lifetime body shape trajectories were also estimated according to Nagin's approach to group-based trajectory modeling, and were analyzed in relation to the risk for breast cancer. During follow-up, 3573 breast cancer cases were diagnosed. At age 8 and at menarche, an increasing size of the body was associated with a significantly negative risk for estrogen receptor (ER)+/progesterone receptor (PR)+ postmenopausal breast cancer [both had a Ptrend=0.001; HR=0.80 (0.67-0.94) and HR=0.74 (0.64-0.86), respectively], for the largest body shapes compared with the first body shape. No significant association with body shape was found at the other ages. In terms of body shape evolution throughout life, women with a large body shape at menarche, irrespective of their body shape before or after menarche, tended to have a decreased risk for ER+/PR+ postmenopausal breast cancer compared with women who were constantly lean. Adjustment for current BMI or age at menarche did not modify any associations. Our study found an inverse association between adiposity at menarche and the risk for ER+/PR+ postmenopausal breast cancer, independent of corpulence at other ages. This work should encourage longitudinal studies with hormonal information to examine the underlying biological mechanisms.European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 06/2012; 22(1). DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0b013e328355ec04 · 2.76 Impact Factor