Maternal depression and child BMI: longitudinal findings from a US sample.
ABSTRACT To examine the association between maternal depression and child body mass index (BMI) from Kindergarten (K) to fifth grade.
Analysis of four waves of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten spanning K to fifth grade. Maternal depressive symptoms (MDSs) were measured by a brief version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analyses, adjusting for key covariates and potential confounders. The analytic sample was restricted to children of normal birth weight.
The relationship between MDS and child BMI varies by child gender and age. Among girls, severe MDS at K was related to lower BMI at third grade (but not later at fifth grade) and to an increase in BMI from K to third and K to fifth grades. Among boys, severe MDS at K was related to higher boys' BMI at fifth grade. When severe MDS occurred at third grade, it was related to higher BMI at fifth grade among girls whereas no statistically significant relationship was found for boys. Low levels of physical activity in comparison to peers at fifth grade and more screen time on weekends at third grade are likely mediators of the relationship between MDS and child BMI among girls, while among boys the relationship appears to be mediated by unhealthy eating habits.
Our findings, indicating developmental and gender differences in the relationship between maternal depression and child BMI, if confirmed, suggest that interventions addressing maternal depression may have concomitant impact on childhood obesity.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine neonatal outcomes among women who had depressive and anxiety disorders during the second trimester of pregnancy in a population-based sample. Participants were 1,465 women and their neonates born at two obstetric clinics in Sweden. The inclusion period for the women was October 2, 2000-October 1, 2001. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) classification system was used to evaluate mental disorders in the second trimester of pregnancy. For assessment of demographic characteristics, birth statistics, and birth-related complications, the medical records of the included women and their offspring were reviewed after delivery. The study results revealed no differences in neonatal outcome between women with antenatal depressive disorders and/or anxiety disorders and healthy subjects. The authors conclude that neonatal outcome did not deteriorate despite the women's impaired mental health during pregnancy.American Journal of Epidemiology 06/2004; 159(9):872-81. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper reports findings of a cross-sectional study of the growth and nutrition of children living in rural Ontario, Canada. The objectives of the research were threefold: (1) to obtain data on obesity prevalence and nutrient intake in a sample of rural Canadian schoolchildren, (2) to compare findings with rural and national-level data on obesity prevalence and nutrient intake, and (3) to provide data to school board and public health agencies planning and implementing nutrition policy and programs to this population. Measures of height and weight were obtained for 504 children ages 7-13 years. Height for age and body mass index scores were calculated and compared with 2000 data from the Centers for Disease Control (Kuczmarski et al. : Vital Health Stat 246:1-190). Weekday 24-h dietary recall was conducted on a subsample of 352 children and the results compared with Canada's Food Guide (Health Canada,1997) and dietary reference data from the US Institute of Medicine (2000). Prevalence of overweight and obesity were high in this sample, with 17.7% of children classified as overweight and 10.9% of children classified as obese. Fifteen percent of boys were classified as obese, compared to 6.8% of girls. Boys consumed significantly more servings from the grain and meat food groups than girls. While mean daily intake of fiber and micronutrients was significantly low for both boys and girls, there were significant gender differences in nutrient intake, with boys consuming greater energy, protein, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and sodium than girls. A number of limitations are discussed, in particular issues arising from the use of Dietary Reference Intakes.American Journal of Human Biology 01/2007; 19(6):774-88. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was a 20-year follow-up of offspring of depressed and nondepressed parents to determine the magnitude and continuity of the risk of parental depression to the offspring. The authors followed 151 offspring of moderately to severely depressed parents or nonpsychiatrically ill comparison subjects for about 20 years, to a mean age of 35 years. Four interviews and diagnostic assessments from childhood or adolescence to adulthood were conducted by assessors blind to the parents' clinical status or the offspring's previous history. Final best-estimate diagnoses were also made by blinded psychologists or psychiatrists. The risks for anxiety disorders, major depression, and substance dependence were approximately three times as high in the offspring of depressed parents as in the offspring of nondepressed parents. Social impairment was also greater. The period of highest incidence for major depressive disorder remained between ages 15 and 20 years, largely in females. The early onset of disorder seen in the high-risk group was not offset by a later onset in the low-risk group as they matured. Higher rates of medical problems and mortality in the offspring of depressed parents were beginning to emerge as the offspring entered middle age. The offspring of depressed parents constitute a high-risk group for psychiatric and medical problems, which begin early and continue through adulthood. Early detection seems warranted.American Journal of Psychiatry 07/2006; 163(6):1001-8. · 14.72 Impact Factor