Article

Nerve injuries sustained during warfare: part I--Epidemiology.

War Nerve Injury Clinic, Headley Court, Epsom, Surrey KT18 6JW, UK.
The Bone & Joint Journal (Impact Factor: 2.8). 04/2012; 94(4):523-8. DOI: 10.1302/0301-620X.94B4.28483
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We describe 261 peripheral nerve injuries sustained in war by 100 consecutive service men and women injured in Iraq and Afghanistan. Their mean age was 26.5 years (18.1 to 42.6), the median interval between injury and first review was 4.2 months (mean 8.4 months (0.36 to 48.49)) and median follow-up was 28.4 months (mean 20.5 months (1.3 to 64.2)). The nerve lesions were predominantly focal prolonged conduction block/neurapraxia in 116 (45%), axonotmesis in 92 (35%) and neurotmesis in 53 (20%) and were evenly distributed between the upper and the lower limbs. Explosions accounted for 164 (63%): 213 (82%) nerve injuries were associated with open wounds. Two or more main nerves were injured in 70 patients. The ulnar, common peroneal and tibial nerves were most commonly injured. In 69 patients there was a vascular injury, fracture, or both at the level of the nerve lesion. Major tissue loss was present in 50 patients: amputation of at least one limb was needed in 18. A total of 36 patients continued in severe neuropathic pain. This paper outlines the methods used in the assessment of these injuries and provides information about the depth and distribution of the nerve lesions, their associated injuries and neuropathic pain syndromes.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Arul Ramasamy, Jul 04, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
202 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Traumatic amputations remain one of the most emotionally disturbing wounds of conflict, as demonstrated by their frequent use in films to illustrate the horrors of war. Unfortunately, they remain common injuries, particularly following explosions, and, in addition, many survivors require primary amputation for unsalvageable injuries or to save their life. A third group, late amputations, is being increasingly recognised, often as a result of the sequelae of complex foot injuries. This article will look at the epidemiology of these injuries and their acute management, complications and outcome.
    05/2013; DOI:10.1177/2049463713487324
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuro-immune alterations in the peripheral and central nervous system play a role in the pathophysiology of chronic pain, and non-coding RNAs - and microRNAs (miRNAs) in particular - regulate both immune and neuronal processes. Specifically, miRNAs control macromolecular complexes in neurons, glia and immune cells and regulate signals used for neuro-immune communication in the pain pathway. Therefore, miRNAs may be hypothesized as critically important master switches modulating chronic pain. In particular, understanding the concerted function of miRNA in the regulation of nociception and endogenous analgesia and defining the importance of miRNAs in the circuitries and cognitive, emotional and behavioral components involved in pain is expected to shed new light on the enigmatic pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, migraine and complex regional pain syndrome. Specific miRNAs may evolve as new druggable molecular targets for pain prevention and relief. Furthermore, predisposing miRNA expression patterns and inter-individual variations and polymorphisms in miRNAs and/or their binding sites may serve as biomarkers for pain and help to predict individual risks for certain types of pain and responsiveness to analgesic drugs. miRNA-based diagnostics are expected to develop into hands-on tools that allow better patient stratification, improved mechanism-based treatment, and targeted prevention strategies for high risk individuals.
    Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 10/2013; 6:33. DOI:10.3389/fnmol.2013.00033
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy, is attracting more public attention in Japan which is likely a result of the recent upsurge in lawsuits filed against medical institutes. A recent court ruling over a case of injection-needlestick-injury induced CRPS has touched off serious debates among both medical practitioners and legal professionals. Although the court rejected the plaintiff's claims, the high court admitted them in view of the evidence and the entire pleadings and ordered the defendant to pay compensation. As venipuncture is the most frequently conducted and minimally invasive procedure in daily clinical practice, this court decision has attracted tremendous interest throughout the nation, alarming medical practitioners, and encouraging attorneys. The purpose of this article is twofold: to highlight the patient's clinical course in summary based on an unofficial case law report(1) and to provide a scientific perspective on this issue based on recent relevant articles.
    Hand Surgery 01/2014; 19(2):151-62. DOI:10.1142/S0218810414400012