Eicosanoids and Their Drugs in Cardiovascular Diseases: Focus on Atherosclerosis and Stroke.
ABSTRACT Eicosanoids are biologically active lipids in both physiologic and pathophysiologic situations. These mediators rapidly generate at sites of inflammation and act through specific receptors that following the generation of a signal transduction cascade, lead to coordinated cellular responses to specific stimuli. Prostanoids, that is, prostaglandins and thromboxane A(2) , are active products of the cyclooxygenase pathway, while leukotrienes and lipoxins derive from the lipoxygenase pathway. In addition, a complex family of prostaglandin isomers called isoprostanes is derived as free-radical products of oxidative metabolism. While there is a wide consensus on the importance of the balance between proaggregating (thromboxane A(2) ) and antiaggregating (prostacyclin) cyclooxygenase products in cardiovascular homeostasis, an increasing body of evidence suggests a key role also for other eicosanoids generated by lipoxygenases, epoxygenases, and nonenzymatic pathways in cardiovascular diseases. This intricate network of lipid mediators is unique considering that from a single precursor, arachidonic acid, may derive an array of bioproducts that interact within each other synergizing or, more often, behaving as functional antagonists.
Article: International Union of Pharmacology classification of prostanoid receptors: properties, distribution, and structure of the receptors and their subtypes.Pharmacological Reviews 07/1994; 46(2):205-29. · 20.23 Impact Factor
Article: International Union of Pharmacology XXXVII. Nomenclature for leukotriene and lipoxin receptors.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The leukotrienes and lipoxins are biologically active metabolites derived from arachidonic acid. Their diverse and potent actions are associated with specific receptors. Recent molecular techniques have established the nucleotide and amino acid sequences and confirmed the evidence that suggested the existence of different G-protein-coupled receptors for these lipid mediators. The nomenclature for these receptors has now been established for the leukotrienes. BLT receptors are activated by leukotriene B(4) and related hydroxyacids and this class of receptors can be subdivided into BLT(1) and BLT(2). The cysteinyl-leukotrienes (LT) activate another group called CysLT receptors, which are referred to as CysLT(1) and CysLT(2). A provisional nomenclature for the lipoxin receptor has also been proposed. LXA(4) and LXB(4) activate the ALX receptor and LXB(4) may also activate another putative receptor. However this latter receptor has not been cloned. The aim of this review is to provide the molecular evidence as well as the properties and significance of the leukotriene and lipoxin receptors, which has lead to the present nomenclature.Pharmacological Reviews 04/2003; 55(1):195-227. · 20.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxoeicosanoids are a family of biologically active arachidonic acid derivatives that have been intimately linked with cellular migration. These metabolites are not only potent chemotaxins but also elicit oxygen radical production as well as induce secretory events in different cells. The most potent native ligand reported is 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE), and the cell membrane receptor activated has now been cloned. This receptor is distinct from those receptors activated by either the prostaglandins or the leukotrienes. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the molecular evidence and highlight the significance of this receptor. In addition, an official nomenclature for this oxoeicosanoid receptor is proposed.Pharmacological Reviews 04/2004; 56(1):149-57. · 20.23 Impact Factor