Frequency of SMARCB1 mutations in familial and sporadic schwannomatosis.
ABSTRACT Mutations of the SMARCB1 gene have been implicated in several human tumour predisposing syndromes. They have recently been identified as an underlying cause of the tumour suppressor syndrome schwannomatosis. There is a much higher rate of mutation detection in familial disease than in sporadic disease. We have carried out extensive genetic testing on a cohort of familial and sporadic patients who fulfilled clinical diagnostic criteria for schwannomatosis. In our current cohort, we identified novel mutations within the SMARCB1 gene and detected several mutations that have been previously identified in other schwannomatosis cohorts. Of the schwannomatosis screens reported to date, including our current dataset, SMARCB1 mutations have been found in 45 % of familial probands and 7 % of sporadic patients. The exon 1 mutation, c.41C >A, and the 3' untranslated region mutation, c.*82C >T, are the most common changes reported in schwannomatosis disease so far, indicating mutation hotspots at both 5' and 3' portions of the gene. SMARCB1 mutations are found in a significant proportion of schwannomatosis patients, but there remains the possibility that further causative genes remain to be found.
- SourceAvailable from: Dafydd Gareth Evans[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Schwannomatosis is the third major form of neurofibromatosis and is characterized by the development of multiple schwannomas in the absence of bilateral vestibular schwannomas. The 2011 Schwannomatosis Update was organized by the Children's Tumor Foundation (www.ctf.org) and held in Los Angeles, CA, from June 5-8, 2011. This article summarizes the highlights presented at the Conference and represents the "state-of-the-field" in 2011. Genetic studies indicate that constitutional mutations in the SMARCB1 tumor suppressor gene occur in 40-50% of familial cases and in 8-10% of sporadic cases of schwannomatosis. Tumorigenesis is thought to occur through a four-hit, three-step model, beginning with a germline mutation in SMARCB1 (hit 1), followed by loss of a portion of chromosome 22 that contains the second SMARCB1 allele and one NF2 allele (hits 2 and 3), followed by mutation of the remaining wild-type NF2 allele (hit 4). Insights from research on HIV and pediatric rhabdoid tumors have shed light on potential molecular pathways that are dysregulated in schwannomatosis-related schwannomas. Mouse models of schwannomatosis have been developed and promise to further expand our understanding of tumorigenesis and the tumor microenvironment. Clinical reports have described the occurrence of intracranial meningiomas in schwannomatosis patients and in families with germline SMARCB1 mutations. The authors propose updated diagnostic criteria to incorporate new clinical and genetic findings since 2005. In the next 5 years, the authors expect that advances in basic research in the pathogenesis of schwannomatosis will lead toward clinical investigations of potential drug therapies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 03/2013; 161(3):405-16. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.35760 · 2.05 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Germline mutations in the SMARCB1 gene cause familial schwannomatosis, a condition characterized by the presence of multiple schwannomas, although mutations in SMARCB1 have also been associated with rhadboid tumor predisposition syndrome 1 (RTPS1). Both schwannomatosis and RTPS1 are autosomal dominant conditions that predispose individuals to develop distinct types of tumors. We clinically and genetically characterized two families with schwannomatosis associated with SMARCB1 mutations. Eight affected members of these families developed different numbers of schwannomas and/or meningiomas at distinct ages, evidence that meningiomas are variably expressed in this condition. We identified two germline mutations in SMARCB1 associated with the familial disease, c.233-1G>A and the novel c.207_208dupTA mutation, which both proved to affect the main SMARCB1 isoforms at the RNA level distinctly. Interestingly, the c.207_208dupTA mutation had no effect on the coding sequence, pre-mRNA splicing or the level of expression of the SMARCB1 isoform 2. Furthermore, SMARCB1 isoforms harboring a premature termination codon were largely eliminated via the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Our results highlight the importance of RNA-based studies to characterize SMARCB1 germline mutations in order to determine their impact on protein expression and gain further insight into the genetic basis of conditions associated with SMARCB1 mutations.Neurogenetics 07/2012; 13(3):267-74. DOI:10.1007/s10048-012-0335-8 · 2.66 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. Schwannomatosis is a recently recognized form of neurofibromatosis characterized by multiple noncutaneous schwannomas, a histologically benign nerve sheath tumor. As more cases are identified, the reported phenotype continues to expand and evolve. We describe the spectrum of clinical findings in a cohort of patients meeting established criteria for schwannomatosis.Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients seen at our institution from 1995-2011 who fulfilled either research or clinical criteria for schwannomatosis. Clinical, radiographic, and pathologic data were extracted with attention to age at onset, location of tumors, ophthalmologic evaluation, family history, and other stigmata of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) or NF2.Results. Eighty-seven patients met the criteria for the study. The most common presentation was pain unassociated with a mass (46%). Seventy-seven of 87 (89%) patients had peripheral schwannomas, 49 of 66 (74%) had spinal schwannomas, seven of 77 (9%) had nonvestibular intracranial schwannomas, and four of 77 (5%) had intracranial meningiomas. Three patients were initially diagnosed with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor; however, following pathologic review, the diagnoses were revised in all three cases. Chronic pain was the most common symptom (68%) and usually persisted despite aggressive surgical and medical management. Other common diagnoses included headaches, depression, and anxiety.Conclusions. Peripheral and spinal schwannomas are common in schwannomatosis patients. Severe pain is difficult to treat in these patients and often associated with anxiety and depression. These findings support a proactive surveillance plan to identify tumors by magnetic resonance imaging scan in order to optimize surgical treatment and to treat associated pain, anxiety, and depression.The Oncologist 08/2012; DOI:10.1634/theoncologist.2012-0162 · 4.54 Impact Factor