Frequency of SMARCB1 mutations in familial and sporadic schwannomatosis.
ABSTRACT Mutations of the SMARCB1 gene have been implicated in several human tumour predisposing syndromes. They have recently been identified as an underlying cause of the tumour suppressor syndrome schwannomatosis. There is a much higher rate of mutation detection in familial disease than in sporadic disease. We have carried out extensive genetic testing on a cohort of familial and sporadic patients who fulfilled clinical diagnostic criteria for schwannomatosis. In our current cohort, we identified novel mutations within the SMARCB1 gene and detected several mutations that have been previously identified in other schwannomatosis cohorts. Of the schwannomatosis screens reported to date, including our current dataset, SMARCB1 mutations have been found in 45 % of familial probands and 7 % of sporadic patients. The exon 1 mutation, c.41C >A, and the 3' untranslated region mutation, c.*82C >T, are the most common changes reported in schwannomatosis disease so far, indicating mutation hotspots at both 5' and 3' portions of the gene. SMARCB1 mutations are found in a significant proportion of schwannomatosis patients, but there remains the possibility that further causative genes remain to be found.
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ABSTRACT: A clinical overlap exists between mosaic Neurofibromatosis Type 2 and sporadic Schwannomatosis conditions. In these cases a molecular analysis of tumors is recommended for a proper genetic diagnostics. This analysis is challenged by the fact that schwannomas in both conditions bear a somatic double inactivation of the NF2 gene. However, SMARCB1-associated schwannomas follow a four-hit, three-step model, in which both alleles of SMARCB1 and NF2 genes are inactivated in the tumor, with one of the steps being always the loss of a big part of chromosome 22 involving both loci. Here we report a 36-year-old woman who only presented multiple subcutaneous schwannomas on her right leg. To help discriminate between both possible diagnoses, an exhaustive molecular genetic and genomic analysis was performed on two schwannomas of the patient, consisting in cDNA and DNA sequencing, MLPA, microsatellite multiplex PCR and SNP-array analyses. The loss of a big part of chromosome 22 (22q12.1q13.33) was identified in both tumors. However, this loss involved the NF2 but not the SMARCB1 locus. SNP-array analysis revealed the presence of the same deletion breakpoint in both schwannomas, indicating that this alteration was actually the first NF2 inactivating hit. In addition, a distinct NF2 point mutation in each tumor was identified, representing independent second hits. In accordance with these results, no deletions or point mutations in the SMARCB1 gene were identified. None of the mutations were present in the blood. Two of the patient's children inherited chromosome 22 deleted in schwannomas of the mother, but in its wild type form. These results conclusively confirm the segmental mosaic NF2 nature of the clinical phenotype presented.BMC Medical Genomics 01/2015; 8(1):2. DOI:10.1186/s12920-015-0076-2 · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The SWI/SNF complexes, initially identified in yeast 20 years ago, are a family of multi-subunit complexes that use the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis to remodel nucleosomes. Chromatin remodeling processes mediated by the SWI/SNF complexes are critical to the modulation of gene expression across a variety of cellular processes, including stemness, differentiation, and proliferation. The first evidence of the involvement of these complexes in carcinogenesis was provided by the identification of biallelic, truncating mutations of the SMARCB1 gene in malignant rhabdoid tumors, a highly aggressive childhood cancer. Subsequently, genome-wide sequencing technologies have identified mutations in genes encoding different subunits of the SWI/SNF complexes in a large number of tumors. SWI/SNF mutations, and the subsequent abnormal function of SWI/SNF complexes, are among the most frequent gene alterations in cancer. The mechanisms by which perturbation of the SWI/SNF complexes promote oncogenesis are not fully elucidated; however, alterations of SWI/SNF genes obviously play a major part in cancer development, progression, and/or resistance to therapy. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease Volume 10 is January 24, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.Annual Review of Pathology Mechanisms of Disease 10/2014; DOI:10.1146/annurev-pathol-012414-040445 · 22.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The identification of mutations and deletions in the SMARCB1 locus in chromosome band 22q11.2 in pediatric rhabdoid tumors provided the first evidence for the involvement of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex in cancer. Over the last 15 years, alterations in more than 20 members of the complex have been reported in a variety of human tumors. These include germline mutations and copy number alterations in SMARCB1, SMARCA4, SMARCE1, and PBRM1 that predispose carriers to both benign and malignant neoplasms. Somatic mutations, structural abnormalities, or epigenetic modifications that lead to reduced or aberrant expression of complex members have now been reported in more than 20% of malignancies, including both solid tumors and hematologic disorders in both children and adults. In this review, we will highlight the role of SMARCB1 in cancer as a paradigm for other tumors with alterations in SWI/SNF complex members and demonstrate the broad spectrum of mutations observed in complex members in different tumor types. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C Seminars in Medical Genetics 09/2014; 166(3). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.c.31410 · 3.54 Impact Factor