Physical performance, bone and joint diseases, and incidence of falls in Japanese men and women: a longitudinal cohort study
ABSTRACT This study examined whether physical performance and bone and joint diseases were risk factors for falls in 745 men and 1,470 women from the Research on Osteoarthritis/osteoporosis Against Disability (ROAD) study (mean, 69.7 years). Slower walking speed was a risk factor for falls in men and women. Knee pain was a risk factor for falls in women. INTRODUCTION: The objective of the present study was to clarify the incidence of falls by sex and age and to determine whether physical performance and bone and joint diseases are risk factors for falls in men and women using a large-scale population-based cohort of the ROAD. METHODS: A total of 745 men and 1,470 women were analyzed in the present study (mean age, 68.5 years). A questionnaire assessed the number of falls during 3 years of follow-up. Grip strength and walking speed were measured at baseline. Knee and lumbar spine radiographs were read by Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade; radiographic knee osteoarthritis and lumbar spondylosis were defined as KL = 3 or 4. Knee and lower back pain were estimated by an interview. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 3 years, 141 (18.9 %) men and 362 (24.6 %) women reported at least one fall. Slower walking speed was a risk factor for falls in men (0.1 m/s decrease; odds ratio [OR], 1.15; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.23) and women (0.1 m/s decrease; OR, 1.05; 95 % CI, 1.01-1.10). Knee pain was also a risk factor for falls (OR, 1.38; 95 % CI, 1.03-1.84) in women, but lower back pain was not. CONCLUSION: We examined the incidence and risk factors for falls in men and women. Slower walking speed was a risk factor for falls in men and women. Knee pain was a risk factor for falls in women.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Accidental falls in the elderly are a major health problem, despite extensive research on risk factors and prevention. Only a limited number of multifactorial, long-term prospective studies have been performed on risk factors for falls in the general elderly population. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors predicting falls in a general elderly population after three and six years, using a prospective design. The prevalence of 38 risk factors was recorded at a baseline assessment of 1763 subjects (aged 60--93 years). The incidence of one or more falls was recorded after three and six years. The predicted risk of falling, after exposure to the various risk factors, was analysed in a multiple logistic regression model, adjusted for age and sex, and presented as odds ratios (OR). A principal component analysis (PCA), including the statistical significant factors, was also performed to identify thematic, uncorrelated components associated with falls. The use of neuroleptics (OR 3.30, 95% CI: 1.15--9.43), heart failure with symptoms (OR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.17--3.04) and low walking speed (OR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.28--2.46) were prominent individual risk factors for falls. In the PCA, three main components predicting falls were identified: reduced mobility, OR 2.12 (95% CI 1.54--2.91), heart dysfunction, OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.26--2.20) and functional impairment including nocturia, OR 1.38 (95% CI 1.01-1.88). Three main components predicting falls were identified in a general elderly population after three and six years: reduced mobility, heart dysfunction and functional impairment including nocturia. The use of neuroleptic drugs was also a prominent individual risk factor, although the prevalence was low. Heart failure with symptoms was a significant risk factor for falls and may be of clinical importance as the prevalence of this condition in the elderly is increasing worldwide. There is need for further research on the relation between heart failure and falls in the elderly, as the treatment for this condition is poorly documented in this demographic. The findings of this study may be valuable in the development of intervention programmes aimed at sustainable, long-term reduction of falls in the elderly.BMC Geriatrics 08/2013; 13(1):81. DOI:10.1186/1471-2318-13-81 · 2.00 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fall risk increasing drugs (FRIDS) and the risk of falls in regard to fall-related chronic diseases. In total, 39 primary care physicians in Germany participated in the EvaMed Pharmacovigilance Network. Antihypertensives, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hypnotics and sedatives, antidepressants and psycholeptics were labelled as FRIDS. A fall was defined according to a diagnosis in the chapter Injury or poisoning (S00-T14 in International Statistical Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10)). Patients older than or equal to 65 years with at least two doctor's visits were included. FRIDS were prescribed for 1768 patients from a total of 5124 patients included in the analysis. FRIDS and seven chronic diseases were statistically significant associated with a higher risk of experiencing a fall. The risk was highest for patients with a diagnosis abnormalities of gait and mobility, vertigo, visual -impairment and weight loss, and increased by 50-90% with arthritis, diseases of arteries, arterioles and capillaries and heart failure. From patients (N = 425) with at least one diagnosis of fall, 219 patients were prescribed FRIDS. In 100 (45.7%) of cases the diagnoses for fall were made before and in 105 (47.9%) of cases at least a month after the prescription of FRIDS. 14 (6.4%) patients had a prescription of FRIDS and a diagnosis of fall within one month. Perceptual disorders, low walking speed and pain are prominent predictors for falls in the elderly. A prescription of FRIDS selects more vulnerable patients having a higher risk of falls. However, experiencing a fall is mainly due to the disease followed by treatment. Thus, not prescribing FRIDS will avoid only a small number of falls.SpringerPlus 08/2014; 3:483. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-483
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A high incidence of falls is seen in people with intellectual disabilities (ID), along with poor balance, strength, muscular endurance, and slow gait speed, which are well-established risk factors for falls in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of these physical fitness components for falls in 724 older adults with borderline to profound ID (≥50 years). Physical fitness was assessed at baseline and data on falls was collected at baseline and after three years. Gait speed was lowest in participants who fell three times or more at follow-up. Gait speed was the only physical fitness component that significantly predicted falls, but did not remain significant after correcting for confounders. Falls at baseline and not having Down syndrome were significant predictors for falls. Extremely low physical fitness levels of older adults with ID, possible strategies to compensate for these low levels, and the finding that falls did not increase with age may explain the limited predictive value of physical fitness found in this study.Research in developmental disabilities 06/2014; 35(6):1317–1325. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.03.022 · 4.41 Impact Factor