This study examined whether physical performance and bone and joint diseases were risk factors for falls in 745 men and 1,470 women from the Research on Osteoarthritis/osteoporosis Against Disability (ROAD) study (mean, 69.7 years). Slower walking speed was a risk factor for falls in men and women. Knee pain was a risk factor for falls in women. INTRODUCTION: The objective of the present study was to clarify the incidence of falls by sex and age and to determine whether physical performance and bone and joint diseases are risk factors for falls in men and women using a large-scale population-based cohort of the ROAD. METHODS: A total of 745 men and 1,470 women were analyzed in the present study (mean age, 68.5 years). A questionnaire assessed the number of falls during 3 years of follow-up. Grip strength and walking speed were measured at baseline. Knee and lumbar spine radiographs were read by Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade; radiographic knee osteoarthritis and lumbar spondylosis were defined as KL = 3 or 4. Knee and lower back pain were estimated by an interview. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 3 years, 141 (18.9 %) men and 362 (24.6 %) women reported at least one fall. Slower walking speed was a risk factor for falls in men (0.1 m/s decrease; odds ratio [OR], 1.15; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.23) and women (0.1 m/s decrease; OR, 1.05; 95 % CI, 1.01-1.10). Knee pain was also a risk factor for falls (OR, 1.38; 95 % CI, 1.03-1.84) in women, but lower back pain was not. CONCLUSION: We examined the incidence and risk factors for falls in men and women. Slower walking speed was a risk factor for falls in men and women. Knee pain was a risk factor for falls in women.
"We found that the component reduced mobility was a prominent predictor of falling. This is in accordance with previous findings, where several studies have revealed a relationship between low walking speed and falls in the elderly
[43,44]. Knee pain and lower back pain have also been significantly associated with multiple falls, predominantly in women
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accidental falls in the elderly are a major health problem, despite extensive research on risk factors and prevention. Only a limited number of multifactorial, long-term prospective studies have been performed on risk factors for falls in the general elderly population. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors predicting falls in a general elderly population after three and six years, using a prospective design.
The prevalence of 38 risk factors was recorded at a baseline assessment of 1763 subjects (aged 60--93 years). The incidence of one or more falls was recorded after three and six years. The predicted risk of falling, after exposure to the various risk factors, was analysed in a multiple logistic regression model, adjusted for age and sex, and presented as odds ratios (OR). A principal component analysis (PCA), including the statistical significant factors, was also performed to identify thematic, uncorrelated components associated with falls.
The use of neuroleptics (OR 3.30, 95% CI: 1.15--9.43), heart failure with symptoms (OR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.17--3.04) and low walking speed (OR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.28--2.46) were prominent individual risk factors for falls. In the PCA, three main components predicting falls were identified: reduced mobility, OR 2.12 (95% CI 1.54--2.91), heart dysfunction, OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.26--2.20) and functional impairment including nocturia, OR 1.38 (95% CI 1.01-1.88).
Three main components predicting falls were identified in a general elderly population after three and six years: reduced mobility, heart dysfunction and functional impairment including nocturia. The use of neuroleptic drugs was also a prominent individual risk factor, although the prevalence was low. Heart failure with symptoms was a significant risk factor for falls and may be of clinical importance as the prevalence of this condition in the elderly is increasing worldwide. There is need for further research on the relation between heart failure and falls in the elderly, as the treatment for this condition is poorly documented in this demographic. The findings of this study may be valuable in the development of intervention programmes aimed at sustainable, long-term reduction of falls in the elderly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluations for knee osteoarthritis (OA) or post-operative total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have mainly been assessed by objective scales. Though the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is attracting attention as a patient-based outcome score, the relationship with conventional objective scales after TKA remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between KOOS and conventional objective scales and evaluate the features of patient-based outcome scores.
Subjects were 130 post-operative patients involving 186 knees treated with TKA. Their mean age was 74.0 ± 8.0 years, and the follow-up period was 43 months. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, original Knee Society Score (KSS) and surgeon's satisfaction score were scored as conventional objective scales besides KOOS. Spearman's correlation coefficient was estimated between these scales. Comparisons between OA and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as primary and revision surgery were performed by the Mann-Whitney U test.
There were strong correlations between KOOS activities of daily living (ADL) and JOA score (r = 0.806), KSS function score (r = 0.803) and between KOOS pain and KSS knee score (r = 0.689). However, there was a poor correlation between KOOS and surgeon's satisfaction score (r = 0.188-0.321). TKA for RA showed poorer results only in KOOS pain (p = 0.003), and revision surgery showed poorer results in KSS function, KOOS symptoms and KOOS quality of life (QOL).
This study suggested that conventional objective scales reflected mainly ADL disturbances in post-operative TKA patients. Furthermore, patient-based outcome scores made it possible to evaluate and detect a minute change of knee pain and QOL in TKA patients. The Japanese KOOS was a useful tool to evaluate conditions after TKA.
International Orthopaedics 08/2013; 38(2). DOI:10.1007/s00264-013-2064-5 · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone fragility is a major health concern, as the increased risk of bone fractures has devastating outcomes in terms of mortality, decreased autonomy, and healthcare costs. Efforts made to address this problem have considerably increased our knowledge about the mechanisms that regulate bone formation and resorption. In particular, we now have a much better understanding of the cellular events that are triggered when bones are mechanically stimulated and how these events can lead to improvements in bone mass. Despite these findings at the molecular level, most exercise intervention studies reveal either no effects or only minor benefits of exercise programs in improving bone mineral density (BMD) in osteoporotic patients. Nevertheless, and despite that BMD is the gold standard for diagnosing osteoporosis, this measure is only able to provide insights regarding the quantity of bone tissue. In this article, we review the complex structure of bone tissue and highlight the concept that its mechanical strength stems from the interaction of several different features. We revisited the available data showing that bone mineralization degree, hydroxyapatite crystal size and heterogeneity, collagen properties, osteocyte density, trabecular and cortical microarchitecture, as well as whole bone geometry, are determinants of bone strength and that each one of these properties may independently contribute to the increased or decreased risk of fracture, even without meaningful changes in aBMD. Based on these findings, we emphasize that while osteoporosis (almost) always causes bone fragility, bone fragility is not always caused just by osteoporosis, as other important variables also play a major role in this etiology. Furthermore, the results of several studies showing compelling data that physical exercise has the potential to improve bone quality and to decrease fracture risk by influencing each one of these determinants are also reviewed. These findings have meaningful clinical repercussions as they emphasize the fact that, even without leading to improvements in BMD, exercise interventions in patients with osteoporosis may be beneficial by improving other determinants of bone strength.
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