Development and Evaluation of a High-Fidelity Canine Patient Simulator for Veterinary Clinical Training
ABSTRACT High-fidelity human patient simulators have been used for decades in medical education to provide opportunities for students to practice technical skills, diagnostic and therapeutic planning, and communication skills in a safe environment. A high-fidelity canine patient simulator (CPS) was developed using components from a human patient simulator and a low-fidelity foam core canine mannequin. Ninety-six veterinary students participated in cardiopulmonary arrest scenarios in groups of three to five students. Afterwards, participants were asked to complete an anonymous online survey describing their experiences. A total of 70 students (73%) completed the survey. All of the students (100%) felt that the simulator session expanded their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge base, and 97% responded that their skills and abilities had improved. Students also expressed positive opinions about the CPS, with 89% agreeing or strongly agreeing that the CPS was realistic and 73% agreeing or strongly agreeing that the scenarios generated emotions similar to real clinical situations. Most participants (98.5%) agreed or strongly agreed that the simulator was an engaging learning experience. Students commonly commented that the simulations allowed them to practice communication and teamwork skills and were more effective than paper-based, problem-oriented learning opportunities and lecture. Students also commented that they wanted more opportunities to participate in simulation exercises. These results suggest that high-fidelity veterinary simulation is an engaging educational methodology that addresses some limitations of other forms of problem-based learning. More studies are needed to quantitatively determine the effectiveness of this novel veterinary educational technology in comparison with more traditional approaches.
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ABSTRACT: In this study, a newly-developed model for training veterinary students to inject the jugular vein in horses was evaluated as an additional tool to supplement the current method of teaching. The model was first validated by 19 experienced equine veterinarians, who judged the model to be a realistic and valuable tool for learning the technique. Subsequently, it was assessed using 24 students who were divided randomly into two groups. The injection technique was taught conventionally in a classroom lecture and a live demonstration to both groups, but only group 1 received additional training on the new model. All participants filled out self-assessment questionnaires before and after group 1 received training on the model. Finally, the proficiency of both groups was assessed using an objective structured clinical evaluation (OSCE) on live horses. Students from group 1 showed significantly improved confidence after their additional training on the model and also showed greater confidence when compared to group 2 students. In the OSCE, group 1 had a significantly better score compared to group 2: the median (with inter-quartile range) was 15 (0.7) vs. 11.5 (2.8) points out of 15, respectively. The training model proved to be a useful tool to teach veterinary students how to perform jugular vein injections in horses in a controlled environment, without time limitations or animal welfare concerns. The newly developed training model offers an inexpensive, efficient, animal-sparing way to teach this clinical skill to veterinary students.Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 05/2013; 40(3):1-8. DOI:10.3138/jvme.1012-09R1 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We determined the Web-based configurations that are applied to teach medical and veterinary communication skills, evaluated their effectiveness, and suggested future educational directions for Web-based communication teaching in veterinary education. We performed a systematic search of CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ERIC limited to articles published in English between 2000 and 2012. The review focused on medical or veterinary undergraduate to clinical- or residency-level students. We selected studies for which the study population was randomized to the Web-based learning (WBL) intervention with a posttest comparison with another WBL or non-WBL method and that reported at least one empirical outcome. Two independent reviewers completed relevancy screening, data extraction, and synthesis of results using Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's framework. The search retrieved 1,583 articles, and 10 met the final inclusion criteria. We identified no published articles on Web-based communication platforms in veterinary medicine; however, publications summarized from human medicine demonstrated that WBL provides a potentially reliable and valid approach for teaching and assessing communication skills. Student feedback on the use of virtual patients for teaching clinical communication skills has been positive, though evidence has suggested that practice with virtual patients prompted lower relation-building responses. Empirical outcomes indicate that WBL is a viable method for expanding the approach to teaching history taking and possibly to additional tasks of the veterinary medical interview.Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 01/2014; 41(1):1-11. DOI:10.3138/jvme.0913-126R · 0.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human laparoscopic simulators have been used in medical education for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in the past years. Simulator-based laparoscopic training has attracted much interest because unique skills have to be learned not only by surgeons in training but also by surgeons in practice. MIS forces the surgeon to adapt to monocular vision and decreased tactile sensation and entails training and improving hand-eye and hand-hand coordination. Those skills require a learning curve that could be overcome gradually with use of simulators. The Canine Laparoscopic Simulator (CLS) for laparoscopic training was developed based on the working and optical space obtained from computed tomography (CT) scan images of three Beagle dogs. Thirty veterinarians (expert group, n=7; novice group, n=23) performed basic laparoscopic exercises in one training session on the CLS. During the performance of the exercises, an experienced laparoscopic veterinarian assessed all the tasks. Afterwards, participants were asked to complete an anonymous survey describing their experience. Most participants expressed positive opinions about the design and usability of the CLS. There were no significant differences between the two groups' opinions. The CLS showed good preliminary acceptance in the basic laparoscopy tasks by veterinarians. They perceived it to be a good training tool, and these results suggest that CLS is an engaging tool for education but still has some limitations inherent in training boxes. Further studies would be needed to establish the validity of training programs performed in the CLS.Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 07/2014; 41(3):1-8. DOI:10.3138/jvme.0913-136R1 · 0.83 Impact Factor