Anti-inflammatory effects of spermidine in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglial cells

Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Oriental Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea.
Journal of Biomedical Science (Impact Factor: 2.76). 03/2012; 19(1):31. DOI: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-31
Source: PubMed


Spermidine, a naturally occurring polyamine, displays a wide variety of internal biological activities including cell growth and proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for its anti-inflammatory activity have not yet been elucidated.
The anti-inflammatory properties of spermidine were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV2 microglia model. As inflammatory parameters, the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were evaluated. We also examined the spermidine's effect on the activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways.
Pretreatment with spermidine prior to LPS treatment significantly inhibited excessive production of NO and PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner, and was associated with down-regulation of expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Spermidine treatment also attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α, by suppressing their mRNA expressions. The mechanism underlying spermidine-mediated attenuation of inflammation in BV2 cells appeared to involve the suppression of translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit into the nucleus, and the phosphorylation of Akt and MAPKs.
The results indicate that spermidine appears to inhibit inflammation stimulated by LPS by blocking the NF-κB, PI3K/Akt and MAPKs signaling pathways in microglia.

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    • "NO is an important regulatory molecule in diverse physiological functions, such as vasodilatation leading to vascular leakage [8,9]. PGE2, which is generated from arachidonic acid via COXs, contributes to the development of many inflammatory diseases [26,27] and overproduction of PGE2 in response to various inflammatory stimulations is associated with up-regulation of COX-II level and progression of inflammation [28]. Therefore, TNF-α-NO and COX-II-PGE2 pathways have been considered as two main streams of inflammatory processes, which are blocked by inhibitors of iNOS (corticosteroids) and COX (NSAIDs), respectively [22,29]. "
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