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La consommation alimentaire et les apports nutritionnels des adultes québécois

Publisher: institut national de santé publique du Québec
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    ABSTRACT: Certain nutrients are well established as dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but dietary patterns may be a better predictor of CVD risk. This study tested the hypothesis that the complex dietary behaviors of US adults can be grouped into major dietary patterns that are related to risk factors for CVD. With the use of food-frequency questionnaire data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, dietary patterns of healthy US adults (>/or =20 y old; n = 13 130) were identified by factor analysis. Log-transformed biomarker data were associated with major dietary patterns after control for confounding variables in regression analyses. All statistical analyses accounted for the survey design and sample weights. Of 6 dietary patterns identified, 2 patterns emerged as the most predominant: the Western pattern was characterized by high intakes of processed meats, eggs, red meats, and high-fat dairy products, and the American-healthy pattern was characterized by high intakes of green, leafy vegetables; salad dressings; tomatoes; other vegetables (eg, peppers, green beans, corn, and peas); cruciferous vegetables; and tea. The Western pattern was associated (P < 0.05) positively with serum C-peptide, serum insulin, and glycated hemoglobin and inversely with red blood cell folate concentrations after adjustment for confounding variables. The American-healthy pattern had no linear relation with any of the biomarkers examined. The identification of common dietary patterns among free-living persons is promising for characterizing high-risk groups at the US population level. The dietary patterns identified here are similar to those reported in other nonrepresentative samples and are associated with biomarkers of CVD risk, which confirms that dietary pattern analysis can be a valuable method for assessing dietary intakes when predicting CVD risk.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2004; 78(6):1103-10. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to summarize and critique reports from selected large-scale population health surveys (U.S. and Canada national health surveys (e.g., National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and Canada Fitness Survey), and active research programs in preventive pediatric cardiology (i.e., Bogalusa Heart Study, Princeton Lipids Study, and Minneapolis Blood Pressure Study)) pertaining to the secular trend in variables associated with the metabolic syndrome of North American youth. These surveys were chosen since they have published peer-reviewed articles on the topic and consist of relatively large samples. The increased body mass index and prevalence of overweight and obesity are clear, particularly over the past two decades. The secular increase in overweight and obesity cannot be linked to available self-report data on physical activity or diet, although measurement issues need to be considered. The emergence of Type II diabetes in adolescents parallels the increase in obesity; however, subsequent changes in blood lipids and blood pressure are less clear. There is some evidence to suggest adverse changes in the blood lipid profile. Aerobic fitness, as determined by maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), has not appeared to change in youth except perhaps for adolescent females. The results suggesting the emergence of metabolic syndrome X during childhood and adolescence are discussed in the context of perturbation and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It can be suggested that a subsistent lifestyle consisting of increased lifestyle activity (not exercise per se), a prudent diet, adequate sleep and rest, and stress reduction be advocated to combat diseases of Western Civilization/metabolic syndrome that have affected North American children (and adults) in recent years. The results also highlight the importance of population surveillance of obesity, physical activity, and dietary intake and cardiovascular health of children into the 21st century.
    American Journal of Human Biology 01/2003; 15(6):786-94. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary effects are presumed to underlie many of the large international differences in incidence seen for most cancers. Apart from alcohol and a few micronutrients, however, the role of specific nutritional factors remains ill-defined. The evidence for a role of energy balance, physical inactivity, and obesity has strengthened, while for dietary fat it has weakened. Phytochemicals such as folate, lycopene and flavonoids are still the subject of active research. As the mechanisms underlying human carcinogenesis are better understood, dietary research will focus increasingly on intermediate markers such as the insulin-like growth factors and potentially carcinogenic metabolites.
    Oncogene 09/2004; 23(38):6349-64. · 7.36 Impact Factor

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