Article

Suppression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition by Grainyhead-like-2.

Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 03/2012; 72(9):2440-53. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-4038
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Grainyhead genes are involved in wound healing and developmental neural tube closure. In light of the high degree of similarity between the epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) occurring in wound-healing processes and the cancer stem cell-like compartment of tumors, including TGF-β dependence, we investigated the role of the Grainyhead gene, Grainyhead-like-2 (GRHL2) in oncogenic EMT. GRHL2 was downregulated specifically in the claudin-low subclass breast tumors and in basal-B subclass breast cancer cell lines. GRHL2 suppressed TGF-β-induced, Twist-induced or spontaneous EMT, enhanced anoikis sensitivity, and suppressed mammosphere generation in mammary epithelial cells. These effects were mediated in part by suppression of ZEB1 expression via direct repression of the ZEB1 promoter. GRHL2 also inhibited Smad-mediated transcription and it upregulated mir-200b/c as well as the TGF-β receptor antagonist, BMP2. Finally, ectopic expression of GRHL2 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells triggered an MET and restored sensitivity to anoikis. Taken together, our findings define a major role for GRHL2 in the suppression of oncogenic EMT in breast cancer cells.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
142 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a plastic process in which fully differentiated epithelial cells are converted into poorly differentiated, migratory and invasive mesenchymal cells and it has been related to the metastasis potential of tumors. This is a reversible process and cells can also eventually undergo mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). The existence of a dynamic EMT process suggests the involvement of epigenetic shifts in the phenotype. Herein, we obtained the DNA methylomes at single-base resolution of MDCK cells undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and translated the identified differentially methylated regions (DMRs) to human breast cancer cells undergoing a gain of migratory and invasive capabilities associated with the EMT phenotype. We noticed dynamic and reversible changes of DNA methylation, both on promoter sequences and gene-bodies in association with transcription regulation of EMT-related genes. Most importantly, the identified DNA methylation markers of EMT were present in primary mammary tumors in association with the epithelial or the mesenchymal phenotype of the studied breast cancer samples.
    Cancer Research 08/2014; · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using gene expression data to enhance our knowledge of control networks relevant to cancer biology and therapy is a challenging but urgent task. Based on the premise that genes that are expressed together in a variety of cell types are likely to functions together, we derived mutually correlated genes that function together in various processes in epithelial-like tumor cells. Expression-correlated genes were derived from data for the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines, as well as data from the Broad Institute's CCLE cell lines. NCI-60 cell lines that selectively expressed a mutually correlated subset of tight junction genes served as a signature for epithelial-like cancer cells. Those signature cell lines served as a seed to derive other correlated genes, many of which had various other epithelial-related functions. Literature survey yielded molecular interaction and function information about those genes, from which molecular interaction maps were assembled. Many of the genes had epithelial functions unrelated to tight junctions, demonstrating that new function categories were elicited. The most highly correlated genes were implicated in the following epithelial functions: interactions at tight junctions (CLDN7, CLDN4, CLDN3, MARVELD3, MARVELD2, TJP3, CGN, CRB3, LLGL2, EPCAM, LNX1); interactions at adherens junctions (CDH1, ADAP1, CAMSAP3); interactions at desmosomes (PPL, PKP3, JUP); transcription regulation of cell-cell junction complexes (GRHL1 and 2); epithelial RNA splicing regulators (ESRP1 and 2); epithelial vesicle traffic (RAB25, EPN3, GRHL2, EHF, ADAP1, MYO5B); epithelial Ca(+2) signaling (ATP2C2, S100A14, BSPRY); terminal differentiation of epithelial cells (OVOL1 and 2, ST14, PRSS8, SPINT1 and 2); maintenance of apico-basal polarity (RAB25, LLGL2, EPN3). The findings provide a foundation for future studies to elucidate the functions of regulatory networks specific to epithelial-like cancer cells and to probe for anti-cancer drug targets.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99269. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: SOX2 is a core component of the transcriptional network responsible for maintaining embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs) in a pluripotent, undifferentiated state of self-renewal. As such, SOX2 is an oncogenic transcription factor and crucial cancer stem cell (CSC) biomarker in embryonal carcinoma and, as more recently found, in the stem-like cancer cell component of many other malignancies. SOX2 is furthermore a crucial factor in the maintenance of adult stem cell phenotypes and has additional roles in cell fate determination. The SOX2-linked microRNA (miRNA) transcriptome and regulome has not yet been fully defined in human pluripotent cells or CSCs. To improve our understanding of the SOX2-linked miRNA regulatory network as a contribution to the phenotype of these cell types, we used high-throughput differential miRNA and gene expression analysis combined with existing genome-wide SOX2 chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data to map the SOX2 miRNA transcriptome in two human embryonal carcinoma cell (hECC) lines.
    BMC genomics. 08/2014; 15(1):711.

Full-text

Download
1 Download
Available from